Overview

January 13, 1950 (Friday)

[note]

 

Integration

The all-black 332nd Fighter Group with three fighter squadrons deployed to the Mediterranean in 1944. After the war,

The unit returned to the US in October 1945 and was deactivated on 19 October 1945. The unit was activated again in 1947 at Lockbourne Army Air Base (later AFB), Ohio, as operational component of 332nd Fighter Wing, with Col. Davis in command.

By February 1948 the 332nd had only thirteen of its forty-eight authorized field grade officers on duty. The three tactical units of the wing were commanded by captains instead of the authorized lieutenant colonels. If Colonel Davis were reassigned, and his attendance at the Air War College was expected momentarily, his successor as wing commander would be a major with five years' service. There was no easy solution to the shortage, a product of many years of neglect.

Segregation imposed the necessity of devising a broad and long-range recruitment and training program for black officers, but not until April 1948 did the Tactical Air Command call for a steady flow of Negroes through officer candidate and flight training schools. It hoped to have another thirty-one black pilot graduates by March 1949 and planned to recall thirty-two others from inactive status.

Even these steps could not possibly alleviate the serious shortage caused by the perennial failure to replace the wing's annual pilot attrition. The chronic shortage of black field grade officers in the 332nd was the immediate cause of the change in Air Force policy. On 7 May 1948 General Quesada decided to recommend that "practically all" the key field grade positions in the 332nd Wing be filled by whites.

Korean_War

The commander of the Ninth Air Force called the proposal to integrate the 332nd's staff contrary to Air Force policy, which prescribed segregated units of not less than company strength. General Old was forthright:


[Integration] would be playing in the direction in which the negro press would like to force us. They are definitely attempting to force the Army and Air Force to solve the racial problem. As you know, they have been strongly advocating mixed companies of white and colored. For obvious reasons this is most undesirable and to do so would definitely limit the geographical locations in which such units could be employed. If the Air Forces go ahead and set a precedent, most undesirable repercussions may occur. Regardless of how the problem is solved, we would certainly come under strong criticism of the negro press. That must be expected.

In view of the combat efficiency demonstrated by colored organizations during the last war, my first recommendation in the interest of national defense and saving the taxpayer's money is to let the organization die on the vine. We make a big subject of giving the taxpayers the maximum amount of protection for each dollar spent, then turn around and support an organization that would contribute little or nothing in an emergency. It is my own opinion that it is an unnecessary drain on our national resources, but for political reasons I presume the organization must be retained. Therefore, my next recommended solution is to transfer all of the colored personnel from the Wing Headquarters staff to the Tactical and Service Organizations within the Wing structure and replace it with a completely white staff.[11-50]

The decision to deactivate the 332nd was made and announced to the public. The black personnel would be re-allocated throughout the Air Forces.

Dowdal H. Davis, president of the Negro Newspaper Publishers Association, reported and the headlines reflected the attitude: "The Air Force Leads the Way." Many newspapers echoed that sentiment.

Unfortunately, the Air Force's black personnel were not so easily reassured, and the service had a morale problem on its hands during the spring of 1949. As later reported by the Fahy Committee staff, black troops generally supported the inactivation of the all-black 332nd Fighter Wing at Lockbourne as a necessary step toward integration, but news reports frequently linked the disbandment of that unit to the belt tightening imposed on the Air Force by the 1950 budget. Some (p. 399) Negroes in the 332nd concluded that the move was not directed at integration but at saving money for the Air Force.

The group was finally inactivated as part of the Air Force plan to achieve racial integration. Its operational squadrons were assigned directly to wing as part of Air Force tri-Deputate unit reorganization. While the actual reason was budgetary, the end result was integration. The 332nd was deactivated on 30 June 1949.

For the Air Force, it seemed, the problem of segregation was all over but for the celebrating. And there was plenty of that, thanks to the Fahy Committee and the press. Kenworthy planned a well-publicized tour of a cross section of Air Force installations this year, in hopes of some great headlines.

Today, Friday the 13th, the the Minneapolis Spokesman editorialized; that it was "the swiftest and most amazing upset of racial policy in the history of the U.S. Military,"

Just the kind of thing Kenworthy was hoping for. [note]

Korean_War

The daily CIA summary report today is highly redacted, and comes in two (2) versions.

Version 1 19500113 0000 CIA 155 This appears to be almost the same as version 2.

Version 2 19500113_0000_0001117954 This version has speculation regarding Russia's boycotting of the United Nations. The CIA does not believe they will be out long, or if something comes up of importance they will stay out. [note]

19500113_0000_CIADoc toop_buildup

There is speculation on why Mao is still in Moscow, and this:

There is no evidence that any Communist faction is strong enough to succeed in an anti-Mao coup or that the USSR would be so rash as to replace Mao at this time.

Finally there is this regarding Korea:

troop Build Up The continuing southward movement of the expanding Korean People's Army toward the thirty-eighth parallel probably constitutes a defensive measure to offset the growing strength of the offensively minded South Korean Army, The influx of Chinese Communist-trained troops from Manchuria, how-ever, will partially solve North Korea's manpower shortage and will add materially to the combat potential of the North Korean Army, North Korean military strength has been further bolstered by the assignment of tanks and heavy field guns to units in the thirty-eighth parallel zone and by the development of North Korean air capabilities, Despite this increase in North Korean military strength, the possibility of an invasion of South Korea is unlikely unless North Korean forces can develop a clear-cut superiority over the increasingly efficient South Korean Army

Notice the CIA is of the opinion that the South Korean Army is superior to the North's. Even as they say the north has tanks, heavy field guns and are developing a air force, none of which can to attributed to the South Koreans.

Korean_War

Today the first simulated interception of an air plane by a automatic homing ground to air missile occurred off Point Mugu, California.

Korean_War

A Lark, CTV-N-10, launched at the Naval Air Missile Test Center, (NAMTC) intercepted a F6F drone, at a range of 17,300 yards (9.8 miles) and an altitude of 7,400 feet (1.5 miles).

The USS Norton Sound (VA-11) left for Alaskan waters earlier this week, and will also be conducting tests of the Lark and other missile systems. [note]

Korean_WarKorean_War

Several days ago, Jacob Malik walked out to show his displeasure over the United Nations' refusal to unseat the Nationalist Chinese delegation. The Soviet Union had recognized the communist People's Republic of China (PRC) as the true Chinese government, and wanted the PRC to replace the Nationalist Chinese delegation at the United Nations.

Malik returned today however, to vote on the Soviet resolution to expel Nationalist China. Six countries--the United States, Nationalist China, Cuba, Ecuador, Cuba, and Egypt--voted against the resolution, and three--the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and India--voted in favor of it. Malik immediately left the meeting, declaring that the United States was "encouraging lawlessness" by refusing to recognize the "illegal presence" of the Nationalist Chinese representatives. He concluded that "even the most convinced reactionaries" had to recognize the justness of the Soviet resolution, and he vowed that the Soviet Union would not be bound by any decisions made by the Security Council if the Nationalist Chinese representative remained. Hoping to forestall any future Security Council action, Malik announced that the Soviet Union would no longer attend its meetings. The remaining members of the Security Council decided to carry on despite the Soviet boycott.

For the second time in a week, Jacob Malik, the Soviet representative to the United Nations, storms out of a meeting of the Security Council, this time in reaction to the defeat of his proposal to expel the Nationalist Chinese representative. At the same time, he announced the Soviet Union's intention to boycott further Security Council meetings.


Several days before the January 13 meeting, Malik walked out to show his displeasure over the United Nations' refusal to unseat the Nationalist Chinese delegation. The Soviet Union had recognized the communist People's Republic of China (PRC) as the true Chinese government, and wanted the PRC to replace the Nationalist Chinese delegation at the United Nations.


Malik returned on January 13, however, to vote on the Soviet resolution to expel Nationalist China. Six countries--the United States, Nationalist China, Cuba, Ecuador, Cuba, and Egypt--voted against the resolution, and three--the Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, and India--voted in favor of it.

Malik immediately left the meeting, declaring that the United States was "encouraging lawlessness" by refusing to recognize the "illegal presence" of the Nationalist Chinese representatives. He concluded that "even the most convinced reactionaries" had to recognize the justness of the Soviet resolution, and he vowed that the Soviet Union would not be bound by any decisions made by the Security Council if the Nationalist Chinese representative remained. Hoping to forestall any future Security Council action, Malik announced that the Soviet Union would no longer attend its meetings. The remaining members of the Security Council decided to carry on despite the Soviet boycott.


In late June 1950, it became apparent that the Soviet action had backfired when the issue of North Korea's invasion of South Korea was brought before the Security Council. By June 27, the Security Council voted to invoke military action by the United Nations for the first time in the organization's history. The Soviets could have blocked the action in the Security Council, since the United States, Soviet Union, China, Britain, and France each had absolute veto power, but no Russian delegate was present. In just a short time, a multinational U.N. force arrived in South Korea and the grueling three-year Korean War was underway.

[note]

Notes for Friday January 13, 1950