Notes

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Korean_War

By 22 July the U.N. forces in Korea equaled those of the North Koreans, and in the closing days of the month the United Nations gained a numerical superiority, which constantly increased until near the end of the year.

8th Army has about 40,000 - ROK has a few thousand more. And the NK crossed the border with 150,000. What the hell kind of crap is this?

While no exact information is available as to the number of enemy artillery pieces and heavy mortars still in action by 5 August, it probably was about one-third the number with which the North Koreans started the war. The 4th Division artillery, for instance, reportedly had only twelve guns on 5 August when the division reached the Naktong. [15-60]


An official report from General MacArthur to the Department of the Army gave U.N. troop strength in Korea on 4 August 1950 as 141,808: [15-61]

Strength
Total 59,238
Total Army 50,367
EUSAK 2,933
KMAG 452
1st Cavalry Division 10,276
2nd Infantry Division 4,922
24th Infantry Division 14,540
25th Infantry Division 12,073
Pusan Base 5,171
1st Provisional Marine Brigade 4,713
FEAF (Korea) 4,051
Other 107
ROK Army (Estimated) 82,570

This report indicates that American ground combat units, as of 4 August, totaled more than 47,000 men. The principal ROK combat strength at this time was in five infantry divisions recently filled to a strength of approximately 45,000 men. [15-62]

Thus, on 4 August, the United Nations combat forces outnumbered the enemy at the front approximately 92,000 to 70,000. The relative U.N. strength opposed to the North Koreans at the front in early August was actually much more favorable than commonly represented. A leading American newspaper on 26 July, in a typical dispatch filed in Korea, described the attack against the 1st Cavalry Division at Yŏngdong as being "wave after wave." A subhead in a leading article in the same newspaper a few days later said in part, "We are still out-numbered at least four to one." [15-63]

Other American newspapers reported the Korean War in much the same vein. The claim that enemy forces outnumbered United Nations troops at least four to one had no basis in fact. High U.S. Army sources repeated the statements that U.S. forces were greatly outnumbered. The North Korean forces had outnumbered those of the United Nations after the near collapse of the ROK Army at the end of June and until about 20 July, but never by more than two to one. By 22 July the U.N. forces in Korea equaled those of the North Koreans, and in the closing days of the month the United Nations gained a numerical superiority, which constantly increased until near the end of the year.

[15-59] ATIS Res Supp Interrog Rpts, Issue 4 (105th Armd Div); 24th Div G-2 Jnl, 2-5 Aug 50, entry 256, 041010.

[15-60] ATIS Res Supp Interrog Rpts, Issue 106 (N.K. Arty), pp. 23, 66. This figure probably includes the 122-mm. howitzers. The standard North Korean division artillery included twenty-four 76-mm. guns and twelve 122-mm. howitzers. Most of the Russian-supplied artillery ammunition used by the North Koreans was four or five years old and verdigris deposits coated the shell casings. There were many misfires and duds. Until about October 1950, the North Koreans used only two types of artillery ammunition, high explosive and armor piercing. The shell had a point detonating fuze to which a nose cap could be attached to give a slightly delayed burst.

[15-61] GHQ UNC Sitrep, 4 Aug 50. The 24th Division figures include the 5th Regimental Combat Team and the 1st and 3d Battalions of the 28th Infantry. These units were attached to the 25th Division about the time the Far East Command issued the 4 August situation report.

[15-62] GHQ UNC G-3 Opn Rpt 41, 4 Aug 50; Ibid., Sitrep to DA, 5 Aug 50. The ROK Army transferred about 14,000 of the approximately 82,000 troops listed in the estimate to labor units, so the over-all troop strength of U.N. forces would fall proportionately. This would not affect the combat forces figures. [15-63] New York Times, July 26 and 30, 1950.

ESTABLISHING THE PUSAN PERIMETER Page 265