Eighth Army's PIR for midnight on July 23 noted that a refugee had reported 10,000 troops with 10 light artillery pieces located west of Taejŏn. The PIR again concluded that the NKPA's most likely course of action focused its main effort toward Hamch'ang and / or Andong, north of the 1st Cavalry Division's sector, but the PIR now modified this conclusion by stating that the NKPA would at the same time attempt a deep envelopment south of Eighth Army's left flank through Ch'ŏngju and Namwŏn.
The second most likely course of action focused the main effort against the 1st Cavalry Division along the Taejŏn-Kŭmch'ŏn axis together with the deep envelopment. The NKPA's combat effectiveness and morale rated as good. 40
Headquarters EUSAK, Periodic Intelligence Report #11, 2400 23 July 1950 , File 319.1 (PIR July), Security Classified General Correspondence 1950 , Adjutant General Section, Eighth U.S. Army, Box 714, RG 338, NARA.