Biography

Joy, Charles Turner
[VAdm ComNavFE]

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Commander Naval Forces, Far East.

ComNavFE

biography

biography

Citation:
The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to C. Turner Joy, Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United Nations while serving as Commander, Naval Forces Far East, in action against enemy forces in the Republic of Korea from 16 June through 19 October 1950. Admiral Joy, through his keen tactical perception, sound judgment, precise coordination, and courageous leadership, effectively directed all United Nations naval forces engaged in the Korean campaign. He materially contributed to the accomplishment of the complex tasks of reconnaissance, mine-sweeping, re-supply, bombardment, and troop lifting which were essential to the early phases of the defense of South Korea, and later, to the Inch'ŏn landing which marked the beginning of the aggressor's retreat. After tactically causing the enemy to expose shore armaments, Admiral Joy personally directed the softening-up of the North Korean shore defenses for two days prior to the landing operations at Inch'ŏn. Although one of the most hazardous ever attempted because of extreme tides, it was brilliantly successful and accomplished the purpose of severing the enemy's communications, reinforcements, and supply lines with a minimum loss of landing forces. Finally, under extremely hazardous conditions afforded by bad weather, the presence of enemy defense forces, and countless un-moored mines, Admiral Joy boarded mine-sweeping vessels in the open sea at Wŏnsan to obtain a first hand appraisal of the increasingly serious mine situation in order to eliminate this navigational menace. His inspirational fearlessness and exemplary leadership contributed materially to the over-all success of the United Nations Forces against the aggressor in Korea.


biography

Biography

Joy, Charles Turner Adm ComNavFE

biography

--At the beginning of the Korean War, Joy was the Commander, Naval Forces Far East. Admiral Joy also served as the senior United Nations delegate to the Korean Armistice Conference.

C. Turner Joy

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Charles Turner Joy
biography
Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, 1951
Born February 17, 1895(1895-02-17)
St. Louis, Missouri
Died June 6, 1956(1956-06-06) (aged 61)
San Diego, California
Place of burial United States Naval Academy Cemetery
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1923-1954
Rank Vice Admiral
Commands held USS Litchfield
USS Louisville
Battles/wars World War II
Korean War
Awards Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star

Vice Admiral Charles Turner Joy (17 February 1895 6 June 1956) was an admiral of the United States Navy during World War II and the Korean War. During the last years of his career, he served as Superintendent of the Naval Academy. The destroyer USS Turner Joy (DD-951) was named for him.

 Early life and career, through World War I

C. Turner Joy was born in St. Louis, Missouri, on 17 February 1895. Commissioned as an Ensign in the Navy upon graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1916, he served in the battleship Pennsylvania (BB-38) for more than four years, including the period of the United States' participation in World War I.

 Interwar years

In 1923, after receiving a graduate education in engineering, he began two years as Aide and Flag Lieutenant to Commander, Yangtze Patrol. This was followed by a tour as Executive Officer of the Asiatic Fleet destroyer Pope (DD-225), an assignment with the Bureau of Ordnance, sea duty in the battleship California (BB-44), and service at the Naval Mine Depot at Yorktown, Virginia.

In the mid-1930s, Lieutenant Commander Joy was Commanding Officer of the destroyer Litchfield (DD-336) and was on the staff of Commander Destroyers, Battle Force.

Between 1937 and 1940, Commander Joy was an instructor at the Naval Academy. He then became Executive Officer of the heavy cruiser Indianapolis (CA-35).

 World War II

In 1941 he was Operations Officer for Commander Scouting Force, Pacific Fleet and, for several months after the United States entered World War II in December of that year, helped plan and execute combat operations against Japan.

Captain Joy commanded the heavy cruiser Louisville (CA-28) from September 1942 until June 1943, during which time he was active in the Aleutians and South Pacific war theatres.

After an important war plans tour in Washington, D.C., Rear Admiral Joy became commander of a cruiser division, leading it through nearly a year and a half of intense combat service against the Japanese.

 Post-WWII and Korean War

Commanding an amphibious group when Japan capitulated in August 1945, Joy was soon assigned to duty in China. He was in charge of the Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren, Virginia, in 194649 and was then sent back to the Western Pacific to become Commander Naval Forces, Far East.

 Vice Admiral Joy held that position until mid-1952, directing much of the Navy's effort during the first two years of the Korean War. From July 1951 until May 1952 he was also the senior United Nations Delegate to the Korean Armistice talks.

His experience in this role let him to write a book, How Communists Negotiate.

In the book he detailed a number of different tactics that were used during the talks to delay, frustrate, and create useful propaganda for the North Koreans. His observations included the fact that the North Koreans, being generally shorter, would set shorter chairs for the UN delegates to appear equal in height.

His final assignment was as Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy.

 Last years and legacy

Retired in July 1954, Admiral Joy subsequently made his home in La Jolla, California. He died at the U.S. Naval Hospital in San Diego, California on 6 June 1956. He is interred at the United States Naval Academy Cemetery.

The destroyer USS Turner Joy (DD-951), 19591991, was named in honor of Admiral Joy. Turner Joy Road at the Naval Academy is also named in his honor.

 See also

Biography

JOY, Vice Admiral C. TURNER

biography

biography

biography


Citation:
The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to C. Turner Joy, Vice Admiral, U.S. Navy, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United Nations while serving as Commander, Naval Forces Far East, in action against enemy forces in the Republic of Korea from 16 June through 19 October 1950. Admiral Joy, through his keen tactical perception, sound judgment, precise coordination, and courageous leadership, effectively directed all United Nations naval forces engaged in the Korean campaign. He materially contributed to the accomplishment of the complex tasks of reconnaissance, mine-sweeping, re-supply, bombardment, and troop lifting which were essential to the early phases of the defense of South Korea, and later, to the Inch'ŏn landing which marked the beginning of the aggressor's retreat. After tactically causing the enemy to expose shore armaments, Admiral Joy personally directed the softening-up of the North Korean shore defenses for two days prior to the landing operations at Inch'ŏn. Although one of the most hazardous ever attempted because of extreme tides, it was brilliantly successful and accomplished the purpose of severing the enemy's communications, reinforcements, and supply lines with a minimum loss of landing forces. Finally, under extremely hazardous conditions afforded by bad weather, the presence of enemy defense forces, and countless un-moored mines, Admiral Joy boarded mine-sweeping vessels in the open sea at Wŏnsan to obtain a first hand appraisal of the increasingly serious mine situation in order to eliminate this navigational menace. His inspirational fearlessness and exemplary leadership contributed materially to the over-all success of the United Nations Forces against the aggressor in Korea.


General Headquarters Far East Command: General Orders No. 45 (October 22, 1950)
Born: February 17, 1895 at St. Louis, Missouri
Home Town: St. Louis, Missouri

Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, USN

By Edward J. Marolda

Charles Turner Joy (February 17, 1895-June 13, 1956) was the senior UN delegate to the Korean Armistice Conference at Kaesong and later Panmunjom (July 1951-May 1952), and Commander Naval Forces, Far East (COMNAVFE) (August 1949-June 1952). Joy was born in St. Louis, Missouri, to prosperous middle class parents. He attended private schools in Missouri, New York, and Pennsylvania before accepting an appointment to the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1912.


Following graduation and commissioning as an officer in the U.S. Navy in 1916, Joy served in battleship Pennsylvania, flagship of the Atlantic Fleet. After World War I, he was chosen for postgraduate education in ordnance engineering and in 1923 earned a Master of Science degree from the University of Michigan. For the next nineteen years Joy served with the Navy's Yangtze Patrol in China, with Commander Destroyers, Battle Force, and on board destroyer Pope and battleship California. He took command of destroyer Litchfield in May 1933. Shore duty included ordnance and gunnery-related billets in the Bureau of Ordnance in Washington, D.C., the Naval Mine Depot in Yorktown, Virginia, and the U.S. Naval Academy.


During the first two years of World War II in the Pacific, while serving as a staff officer on board cruiser Indianapolis and then carrier Lexington, Joy helped plan successful naval operations against Japanese forces in the Solomon and Aleutian Islands. He capped that tour with command of cruiser Louisville. After heading the Pacific Plans Division in the Navy's Washington headquarters from August 1943 to May 1944, now Rear Admiral Joy rejoined the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Cruiser and amphibious commands under his leadership performed with skill and valor in the Mariana, Philippines, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa campaigns.


Complementing this wartime experience in the Pacific, during the immediate postwar period Joy led U.S. naval forces operating on the Yangtze River and along China's coast. He also oversaw the politically sensitive task of transporting troops of Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-skek from south to north China and Manchuria, then controlled by Mao Tse-tung's Communists. Then followed a three-year tour as commander of the Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren, Virginia.
In August 1949, Joy was promoted to vice admiral and selected as Commander Naval Forces, Far East. From his headquarters in Tokyo, Vice Admiral Joy organized and directed American and allied naval forces that fought desperately to stop and then turn back the North Korean offensive that swept south into the Republic of Korea during the hot summer of 1950. Surface and air units under his command bombed and shelled advancing enemy troops, road and railway bridges, and supply depots. His combat fleet quickly established its presence in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan to discourage Soviet and Chinese military action and to protect the seagoing reinforcement and resupply of UN forces holding the vital port of Pusan.


Naval Forces, Far East carriers, cruisers, destroyers, and amphibious ships, along with allied warships, carried out the bold amphibious assault at Inch'ŏn, which deployed strong American and South Korean ground units ashore in the rear of the North Korean People's Army. Then Joy's naval forces successfully evacuated Marine, Army, and South Korean troops and equipment from the port of Hungnam in December 1950, when Chinese armies swept down from the hills of North Korea and threatened to destroy the UN command. The allied navies under Joy helped stop the Communist springtime offensive of 1951.


Impressed with his obvious leadership qualities, ability to function well under pressure, and understanding of U.S. goals in the Far East, in July 1951 Washington selected Joy as the senior UN delegate to the newly convened Korean Armistice Conference. Many observers noted that during the ceasefire negotiations with his Chinese and North Korean opposites, who seemed unconcerned with the lack of progress, Joy usually exuded self-confidence, firmness, and patience. On a few occasions, however, the admiral publicly criticized the rigid negotiating posture and uncooperative manner of the Communist side. The Chinese and North Korean delegates, however, only carried out the dictates of the political leaders in Moscow, Beijing, and Pyongyang, and thus were not inclined to compromise on key issues. He also bemoaned the periodic changes in the UN's basic policy positions. Exasperated by the lack of progress in the negotiations, the admiral asked to be replaced.


In May 1952, Joy was called home and named superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy. Even though diagnosed with lukemia soon afterward, Joy only retired from active service in July 1954 at the end of his tour. The following year, Macmillan published his How Communists Negotiate, which detailed the exasperations of the Panmunjom negotiations. Vice Admiral Joy died of his cancer at the Naval Hospital in San Diego, California, on June 13, 1956.

=========

Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, USN

By Edward J. Marolda

Charles Turner Joy (February 17, 1895-June 13, 1956) was the senior UN delegate to the Korean Armistice Conference at Kaesong and later Panmunjom (July 1951-May 1952), and Commander Naval Forces, Far East (COMNAVFE) (August 1949-June 1952). Joy was born in St. Louis, Missouri, to prosperous middle class parents. He attended private schools in Missouri, New York, and Pennsylvania before accepting an appointment to the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, in 1912.
Following graduation and commissioning as an officer in the U.S. Navy in 1916, Joy served in battleship Pennsylvania, flagship of the Atlantic Fleet. After World War I, he was chosen for postgraduate education in ordnance engineering and in 1923 earned a Master of Science degree from the University of Michigan. For the next nineteen years Joy served with the Navy's Yangtze Patrol in China, with Commander Destroyers, Battle Force, and on board destroyer Pope and battleship California. He took command of destroyer Litchfield in May 1933. Shore duty included ordnance and gunnery-related billets in the Bureau of Ordnance in Washington, D.C., the Naval Mine Depot in Yorktown, Virginia, and the U.S. Naval Academy.
During the first two years of World War II in the Pacific, while serving as a staff officer on board cruiser Indianapolis and then carrier Lexington, Joy helped plan successful naval operations against Japanese forces in the Solomon and Aleutian Islands. He capped that tour with command of cruiser Louisville. After heading the Pacific Plans Division in the Navy's Washington headquarters from August 1943 to May 1944, now Rear Admiral Joy rejoined the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Cruiser and amphibious commands under his leadership performed with skill and valor in the Mariana, Philippines, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa campaigns.
Complementing this wartime experience in the Pacific, during the immediate postwar period Joy led U.S. naval forces operating on the Yangtze River and along China's coast. He also oversaw the politically sensitive task of transporting troops of Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-skek from south to north China and Manchuria, then controlled by Mao Tse-tung's Communists. Then followed a three-year tour as commander of the Naval Proving Ground at Dahlgren, Virginia.


In August 1949, Joy was promoted to vice admiral and selected as Commander Naval Forces, Far East. From his headquarters in Tokyo, Vice Admiral Joy organized and directed American and allied naval forces that fought desperately to stop and then turn back the North Korean offensive that swept south into the Republic of Korea during the hot summer of 1950. Surface and air units under his command bombed and shelled advancing enemy troops, road and railway bridges, and supply depots. His combat fleet quickly established its presence in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan to discourage Soviet and Chinese military action and to protect the seagoing reinforcement and resupply of UN forces holding the vital port of Pusan.


Naval Forces, Far East carriers, cruisers, destroyers, and amphibious ships, along with allied warships, carried out the bold amphibious assault at Inch'ŏn, which deployed strong American and South Korean ground units ashore in the rear of the North Korean People's Army. Then Joy's naval forces successfully evacuated Marine, Army, and South Korean troops and equipment from the port of Hungnam in December 1950, when Chinese armies swept down from the hills of North Korea and threatened to destroy the UN command. The allied navies under Joy helped stop the Communist springtime offensive of 1951.


Impressed with his obvious leadership qualities, ability to function well under pressure, and understanding of U.S. goals in the Far East, in July 1951 Washington selected Joy as the senior UN delegate to the newly convened Korean Armistice Conference. Many observers noted that during the ceasefire negotiations with his Chinese and North Korean opposites, who seemed unconcerned with the lack of progress, Joy usually exuded self-confidence, firmness, and patience. On a few occasions, however, the admiral publicly criticized the rigid negotiating posture and uncooperative manner of the Communist side. The Chinese and North Korean delegates, however, only carried out the dictates of the political leaders in Moscow, Beijing, and Pyongyang, and thus were not inclined to compromise on key issues. He also bemoaned the periodic changes in the UN's basic policy positions. Exasperated by the lack of progress in the negotiations, the admiral asked to be replaced.


In May 1952, Joy was called home and named superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy. Even though diagnosed with lukemia soon afterward, Joy only retired from active service in July 1954 at the end of his tour. The following year, Macmillan published his How Communists Negotiate, which detailed the exasperations of the Panmunjom negotiations. Vice Admiral Joy died of his cancer at the Naval Hospital in San Diego, California, on June 13, 1956.

June 25

In a teleconference between Washington and Tokyo that evening, General MacArthur received his instructions. The JCS ordered him to send any ammunition and equipment to Korea which he believed necessary to prevent the loss of the key Sŏul-Kimp'o-Inch'ŏn area. He was to give such supply movements air and naval cover, and take such additional action as proved necessary to safeguard the evacuation of noncombatants from Korea. To augment naval cover, the JCS ordered the U. S. Seventh Fleet to Sasebo Harbor where it was to report to Vice Adm. C. Turner Joy, Commander of Navy Forces, Far East (COMNAVFE). The JCS warned MacArthur that further high level decisions might be expected as the situation developed.

June 25, 1950

In June 1950, slightly more than one-third of the United States naval operating forces were in the Pacific under the command of Admiral Arthur W. Radford. Only about one-fifth of this was in Far Eastern waters.

Vice Adm. Charles Turner Joy commanded U.S. Naval Forces, Far East. The naval strength of the Far East Command when the Korean War started comprised

1 cruiser, the USS Juneau (CLAA-119);

4 destroyers, the USS Mansfield (DD-728), USS De Haven (DD-727), USS Collett (DD-730), and USS Lyman K. Swenson (DD-729);

and a number of amphibious and cargo-type vessel

June 25, 1950

In a teleconference between Washington and Tokyo that evening, General MacArthur received his instructions. The JCS ordered him to send any ammunition and equipment to Korea which he believed necessary to prevent the loss of the key Sŏul-Kimp'o-Inch'ŏn area. He was to give such supply movements air and naval cover, and take such additional action as proved necessary to safeguard the evacuation of noncombatants from Korea. To augment naval cover, the JCS ordered the U. S. Seventh Fleet to Sasebo Harbor where it was to report to Vice Adm. C. Turner Joy, Commander of Navy Forces, Far East (COMNAVFE). The JCS warned MacArthur that further high level decisions might be expected as the situation developed.

June 25, 1950

The Fleet's principal base of operations was on the island of Luzon, where the Navy, following the war, had developed new facilities at Subic Bay and an airfield at Sangley Point. Peacetime operations of the Seventh Fleet were under the control of Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, Admiral Arthur E. Radford, but standing orders provided that, when operating in Japanese waters or in the event of an emergency, control would pass to Commander Naval Forces Far East. There were, however, certain problems implicit in this arrangement: Admiral Radford's area of responsibility included potential trouble spots outside the limits of the Far East Command; lacking an aviation section on his staff, the control of a carrier striking force and of patrol squadrons would present problems for ComNavFE; Admiral Struble was senior to Admiral Joy.

Although early postwar policy had called for the maintenance of two aircraft carriers in the Western Pacific, the reductions in defense appropriations had made this impossible: for some time prior to January 1950 no carrier had operated west of Pearl; current procedure called for the rotation of single units on six-month tours of duty.  In these circumstances Admiral Struble's Seventh Fleet Striking Force, Task Force 77, was made up of a carrier  "group" containing one carrier, a support "group" containing one cruiser, and a screening group of eight destroyers. The duty carrier in the summer of 1950 was USS Valley Forge (CV-45), an improved postwar version of the Essex class, completed in 1946, with a standard displacement of 27,100 tons, a length of 876 feet, and a speed of 33 knots.

Flagship of Rear Admiral John M. Hoskins, Commander Carrier Division 3, Valley Forge had reported in to the Western Pacific in May, at which time her predecessor, USS Boxer (CV-21), had been returned to the west coast for navy yard availability.