Lieutenant Colonel George R. Newton watched with
satisfaction as his marines of 1st Battalion, 5th Marine Regiment (or “5th
Marines”) filed into their barracks at Camp Pendleton in mid-May 1950. A
thirty-five-year-old Naval Academy graduate, Newton had spent World War II as a
prisoner of the Japanese—a fate that had overtaken him on the war’s first day
when his unit, B Company of the American embassy guard detachment in Peking,
China, was forced to surrender without firing a shot. Repatriated and returned
to active duty in 1946, he had received postwar schooling and commanded a marine
barracks and then a service support group before reporting to the battalion in
January 1950. Pleased with his new assignment, he was further heartened by
developments in the marine corps, which seemed to be emerging from the doldrums
of postwar demobilization. The 5th Marines, recently reformed to become the
first complete regiment to be restored to service in the 1st Marine Division,
was proof that the corps was changing for the better after a period of decline.
From Newton’s standpoint, things were looking up.2
Estes, Kenneth W.. Into the Breach at Pusan: The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in the Korean War (Campaigns and Commanders Series) (Kindle Locations 211-219). University of Oklahoma Press. Kindle Edition.
COLONEL NEWTON was commissioned a Marine officer upon graduation from the Naval Academy in 1938. During his career he has served at such widely separated duty stations as Embassy Guard, Peking, China, and Marine Barracks, Port Lyautey, Morocco. Captured by the Japanese on December 7, 1941, while he was commanding officer of "B” Company, Embassy Guard in Peking, the colonel remained a prisoner of war throughout World War II. In Korea in 1950, Colonel Newton won the Silver Star for heroism during the recapture of Seoul and the Army Legion of Merit for outstanding service while he commanded the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines, 1st Marine Brigade during the Pusan Perimeter fighting.
Prior to his San Diego assignment in July 1958, the colonel was Director of Instruction, Landing Force Training Unit, Atlantic, U. S. Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek, Virginia. Colonel Newton was Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3 (Operations), at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot from July 1958 until shortly before he assumed command of Recruit Training Regiment on January 15, 1960.
George R. Newton 1st Bn 5th Marines
Left to right:
Lt Col George Newton, Bn Cmdr 1/5, 1st Provisional Marine Brigade
Maj. John Russell, CO Weapons Co.
Capt. John Stevens, CO Able Co.
Capt. Ike Fenton, CO Baker Co.
Capt. Walter Godenius, CO H&S Co.
(Photo courtesy of John Stevens, Dixon's former commander,
used with permission)
Left to Right: Lt Col George R Newton, Bn CO; Major John Russell, Weapons Company CO; Capt John Stevens, Able Company CO; Capt Ike Fenton, Baker Company CO(Capt J L Tobin had been wounded and evacuated, Capt Fenton became CO); Capt Walter Godenius, H & S Company CO.
August 7, 1950 1300
Lieutenant Colonel Newton’s 1st Battalion reached the village in the afternoon of the 7th and relieved Company G’s two platoons on Hill 99. Bohn took his company back across the valley and deployed on the lower slopes of 255 facing the Haman road.
Able Company August 17, 1950 1500
Leaving the line of departure from the southern reaches of Observation Hill, the 1st and 2nd Platoons of Company A crossed the rice paddy while Marine air and artillery savagely blasted the forward and reverse slopes of the objective. The two assault units, each with a machinegun section attached, passed through Company E at 1500 and scrambled up the scarred hillside. 
Sweeney’s battle-worn company withdrew, carrying its dead and wounded back to Observation Hill. The list of casualties included Lieutenant Arkadis, wounded while spearheading the unit’s advance.
As Company A’s assault wave passed the halfway point of ascent, it met only sniping fire from the crest and forward slopes of Obong-ni Ridge. But any delusions that the enemy had quit were soon shattered when the summit suddenly came alive with Communist machineguns.
Intense fire poured down on the attackers, and Marines pitched forward to roll limply down the hillside. First Lieutenant Robert C. Sebilian, leading the 1st Platoon up the draw between Hills 109 and 117, ignored the storm of steel and urged his men forward. Standing fully exposed while pointing out enemy positions to his NCO’s, the young officer was struck by an explosive bullet which shattered his leg. Technical Sergeant Orval F. McMullen took command and resolutely pressed the attack.
The 1st Platoon reached the saddle above the draw just as Company B was taking Hill 109. When McMullen tried to advance southward to 117, he and his men were pinned down by a solid sheet of Communist fire.
On the left, North Korean guns had already cut Second Lieutenant Thomas H. Johnston’s 2nd Platoon in half. The pint-sized platoon leader proved to be a giant in courage. He pushed doggedly up the draw between Hills 117 and 143, but casualties bled his skirmish line white and finally brought it to a stop.
Marines watching the battle from Observation Hill saw Company A’s attack bog down, despite the ceaseless pounding of Hills 117 and 143 by Brigade supporting arms. Startled, the observers noted a lone figure who bolted forward from the 2nd Platoon’s draw and stubbornly scrambled up the hill. It was Johnston attempting a single-handed assault on the core of enemy resistance.
The astonished onlookers saw him reach the saddle north of Hill 143. That he survived to this point was remarkable enough, yet he continued to push forward. Then, at the base of the blazing peak, the little figure sagged to the ground and lay motionless.
Technical Sergeant Frank J. Lawson immediately took over the platoon, displaying outstanding leadership in his attempt to continue the attack. Communist guns and grenades prevailed, however, and again the line of infantrymen stalled. The 2nd Platoon now consisted of a squad.
Captain Stevens radioed Lieutenant Colonel Newton from his OP and requested permission to commit his 3rd Platoon, then deployed on Observation Hill as battalion reserve. The request granted, First Lieutenant George C. Fox led the platoon forward into the rice paddy just as a heavy mortar barrage fell in the area. One of Fox’s men was killed outright.
Moving quickly to Obong-ni Ridge and ascending the slope, the 3rd Platoon was joined by Lawson and the remnants of Johnston’s outfit. The skirmish line passed the critical halfway point, and again enemy machineguns and grenades opened up.
Twice Fox attempted to develop an assault, failing both times to get his platoon through the curtain of fire above the gully. While Technical Sergeant Stanley G. Millar was reorganizing the skirmish line, the platoon leader and Private First Class Benjamin C. Simpson of the 2nd Platoon made an attempt to reach Johnston.
The pair climbed to a point above the gully from which Simpson could see the fallen officer. Assured now that Johnston was dead, and unable to recover the body because of interlocking machinegun fire across the area, Fox and the rifleman slid down the draw to the 3rd Platoon lines.
By this time Stevens had moved to the base of Obong-ni Ridge, but he had lost radio contact with the three units high on the hillside. He could see the combined 2nd and 3rd Platoons; but the 1st was out of sight, leaving the company commander unaware of a limited success that could have been exploited.
August 17, 1950 2030
1st Battalion 5th Marines
Throughout 17 August the evacuation of dead and wounded had been a major concern of every Marine, from fire team leaders up to the Brigade commander. Men risked their lives dragging casualties off the blazing slopes of Obong-ni Ridge to relative safety at the base. Litter bearers plodded back and forth across the fire-swept rice paddy, and a steady stream of wounded passed through the 1st and 2nd Battalion aid stations behind the road cut. Medical officers of the two battalions, Lieutenants (jg) Bentley G. Nelson and Chester L. Klein, worked tirelessly with their corpsmen.
In the rear, Lieutenant Commander Byron D. Casteel had to commandeer every ambulance in the area—including 16 Army vehicles—to evacuate wounded to and from his 5th Marines aid station. So acute was the shortage of hospital corpsmen that the Brigade’s Malaria and Epidemic Control Unit was used to reinforce the regimental medical staff. Even so, the hospital tents were busy for a straight 18 hours.
The small number of deaths from wounds attested to the speed and effectiveness of helicopter evacuations; for the pilots of VMO–6 were ferrying the more serious casualties from the regimental aid station to the Army’s 8076 Surgical Hospital at Miryang, some 20 miles away.
While medics toiled to save lives, the spiritual needs of casualties were filled by the inspiring labor of the 5th Marines’ naval chaplains, Lieutenant Commander Orlando Ingvolstad, Jr., Lieutenant William G. Tennant, and Lieutenant (jg) Bernard L. Hickey. A familiar figure at the front, frequently exposed to enemy fire as he administered to fallen Marines, was Lieutenant Commander Otto E. Sporrer, beloved chaplain of 1/11.
Two serious obstacles to the various missions behind the front were the dud-infested area east of Observation Hill and a section of collapsed MSR in the river bed occupied by the 5th Marines CP. First Lieutenant Wayne E. Richards and his 2nd Platoon, Able Company Engineers, spent most of 17 August at the tedious task of removing unexploded missiles from the forward assembly areas. The engineers’ 1st Platoon had to tear down part of an unoccupied village for material to reinforce the sinking road over which the jeep ambulances and supply trucks were struggling.
As the sun dropped behind Obong-ni Ridge, activity on the MSR continued unabated, although the battle for Objective One had diminished to a crackle of rifle fire and occasional machinegun bursts. Company A had been unable to take Hill 117 and 143, still bristling with enemy automatic weapons. At 2030, shortly after the smashing victory over North Korean armor, Captain Stevens contacted his 1st Platoon and learned that it was on the saddle between peaks 109 and-117. Although tied in on the right with Company B, the platoon was separated by a 100-yard gap from Stevens’ other two platoons on the slopes to the left.
The company commander called Fox (3rd Plt), Lawson (2nd Plt), and McMullen (1st Plt) together near the base of the ridge to consult them on continuing the attack. All platoon leaders advised against it, since darkness was falling and their units needed rest, food, water, and ammunition. Moreover, the enemy’s bold tank attack had convinced the infantry leaders that a larger counter-stroke by the Communists was imminent, and they wanted time for preparation.
Stevens informed Newton of the situation by radio, and the battalion commander ordered him to discontinue the attack and tie in with Fenton’s unit for the night. It was already dark when the 2nd and 3rd Platoons shifted to the right from their positions below Hills 117 and 143.
Company B had been busily consolidating its high ground since the seizure of Hills 102 and 109 earlier in the evening. While Fenton’s machineguns dueled with those of the Reds on 117, his 1st and 2nd Platoons deployed defensively on the forward slopes of the two captured peaks, and the 3rd went into reserve on the reverse slope.
Company A’s front extended left from the southern part of Hill 109—where the 1st Platoon was linked to Fenton’s unit—to the center of the saddle toward 117. There the line bent down in an arch, formed by the 2nd Platoon, to the spur below the enemy-held peak. Able Company’s left was actually perpendicular to the ridgeline, for Fox’s 3rd Platoon was deployed up and down Hill 117’s spur.
To complete the Brigade front, Headquarters Company of 1/5 was to have extended across the rice paddy from Observation Hill and tied in with Company A’s left flank. Due to the casualties and workload of the headquarters troops, this connection was never made, with the result that Fox’s platoon remained dangling.