Biography

Soucek, Apollo [RAdm USN]

biography

Apollo Soucek

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Apollo Soucek
Nickname(s) Sockem
Born (1897-02-24)February 24, 1897
Lamont, Oklahoma
Died July 22, 1955(1955-07-22) (aged 58)
Washington, D.C.
Place of burial Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch Seal of the United States Department of the Navy.svg United States Navy
Years of service 1918–1955
Rank US-O9 insignia.svg Vice Admiral
Commands held Fighter Squadron 2
USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42)
Carrier Division 3/Task Force 77
Battles/wars World War I
World War II
Korean War
Awards Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star
Legion of Merit (2)
Distinguished Flying Cross
Bronze Star Medal

Apollo Soucek (February 24, 1897 – July 22, 1955) was a vice admiral in the United States Navy, who was a record-breaking test pilot during 1929-1930, served in World War II, and was commander of Carrier Division Three during the Korean War, ending his career as Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics.

Contents

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Biography[edit]

Soucek was born in Lamont, Oklahoma. He was the son of Johann "John" Soucek, who had been born in Ovčáry, Bohemia (then part of the Austria-Hungary, now in the Czech Republic), but had emigrated to the United States at the age of 7 with his family. Arriving in June 1875 aboard the Norddeutscher Lloyd ship SS Ohio, the family—Mathias, Maria, and their six children—first settled in Nebraska, then moved to Kansas, before taking part in the Cherokee Strip Land Run in 1893, and settling in Medford.

Early career[edit]

Soucek entered the United States Naval Academy in 1918 and served with the rank of midshipman aboard the battleship Missouri (BB-11) during World War I. He was commissioned as an ensign on 3 June 1921. He then served aboard the Mississippi (BB-41). In February 1924, Soucek reported to Naval Air Station Pensacola for flight training, qualifying as a Naval aviator in October. He was assigned to the Navy's first aircraft carrier Langley (CV-1) in November, and served as Assistant Flight Officer of Observation Squadron 2. In January 1925, he transferred to the Maryland (BB-46) to serve as Assistant Navigator and Junior Aviation Officer of Observation Squadron 1. In May 1927, he was assigned to the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, before transferring to the Bureau of Aeronautics in July to serve in the Power Plant Design Section.

Flying the Wright Apache, Soucek set a series of flight altitude records. On May 8, 1929, he set the world altitude record for landplanes by flying to the height of 39,140 feet (11,930 m), and on June 4, he set the altitude record for seaplanes, also in an Apache, reaching the height of 38,560 feet (11,750 m). On June 4, 1930, Soucek flew an Apache landplane equipped with a 450 horsepower (340 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 radial engine to a height of 43,166 feet (13,157 m) over Naval Air Station Anacostia, regaining the world record he had held in 1929. Soucek received the Distinguished Flying Cross for these flights.

In June 1930, Soucek returned to sea duty, serving as Squadron Flight Officer of Fighter Squadron 3 on the carrier Lexington (CV-2), and as Gunnery Officer and Executive Officer of Fighter Squadron 3 aboard Saratoga (CV-3). In June 1932, he returned to the Naval Aircraft Factory to serve as Assistant to the Superintendent of the Aeronautical Engineering Laboratory. From June 1935, he served as Hangar Deck, Flight Deck, and Senior Watch Officer aboard Ranger (CV-4), returning to the Lexington in June 1937 to serve as the Commanding Officer of Fighter Squadron 2. Soucek went back to the Bureau of Aeronautics in May 1938 to serve as Assistant to the Chief of the Personnel Division.

World War II[edit]

In May 1940, he was assigned to Yorktown (CV-5) as Navigator, moving to the Hornet (CV-8) on October 20, 1941, to serve as Air Officer. Soucek was appointed Executive Officer in 1942, and served in that capacity during the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo on April 18 and during the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands. He was later awarded the Silver Star for his efforts during this battle.

In January 1943, he was appointed Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations in the Pacific Fleet. From July 1943, he served as Chief of Staff and Aide to the Chief of Naval Air Intermediate Training Command and Deputy Chief of Naval Air Training, based at NAS Pensacola. Soucek was awarded the Legion of Merit with Gold Star for his service in this capacity. In March 1945, he was appointed Officer-in-Charge of the fitting-out of the carrier Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42), becoming the first commander on her commissioning on October 27, 1945.

Later career[edit]

From January 1946, he commanded Carrier Division 14, and from August was commander of Fleet Air Wing 1. On July 15, 1947, he was appointed commander of the Naval Air Test Center at Naval Air Station Patuxent River. From 1949, he served as Assistant Chief of Naval Operations for Aviation Plans, and Director of the Aviation Plans and Program Division. He spent most of 1951 in London as U.S. Naval Attaché for Air, before serving in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations from November until February 1952, when he was appointed commander of Carrier Division 3/Task Force 77, flying his flag aboard Boxer (CV-21), supporting operations in the Korean War. Rear Admiral Soucek received the Distinguished Service Medal for his service in Korea.

On June 18, 1953, Soucek was appointed Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. However, in February 1955 he became ill, quitting his post on March 4, and was transferred to the Retired List on July 1.

He died of a heart attack on July 19, 1955, at the age of 58, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery on 26 July. He was posthumously promoted to vice admiral.

On June 4, 1957, Naval Air Station Oceana was officially named Apollo Soucek Field.

Family[edit]

Apollo's younger brother Zeus (1899–1967), also joined the Navy, became an aviator, and set speed, distance and duration records piloting a Naval Aircraft Factory PN-12 in May 1928.

Decorations[edit]

Naval Aviator Badge.jpg
   Gold star
V Bronze star
Bronze starBronze starBronze star
Bronze starBronze star
Naval Aviator Badge
1st Row Navy Distinguished Service Medal Silver Star Legion of Merit with Gold Star
2nd Row Distinguished Flying Cross Bronze Star Medal
with Combat "V"
World War I Victory Medal
with Atlantic Fleet Clasp
American Defense Service Medal
3rd Row Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal
with three service stars
American Campaign Medal World War II Victory Medal Navy Occupation Medal
4th Row China Service Medal National Defense Service Medal Korean Service Medal
with two service stars
United Nations Korea Medal

 

Lieutenant General Lemuel C . Shepherd, Jr. Commanding General, FMFPac, after an inspection trip to the war zone during which he was briefed on and viewed the operations of the brigade and of VMO—6, echoed General Craig's praise of helicopters and repeated his call for more of them:

There are no superlatives adequate to describe the general reaction to the helicopter. Almost any individual questioned could offer some personal story to emphasize the valuable part played by the five H03S planes available .* Reconnaissance, liaison, visual flank security, movement of security patrols from one key locality to the next, posting and supply of security detachments and many more . There is no doubt that the enthusiasm voiced by the brigade is entirely warranted . Moreover the usefulness of the helicopter is not by any means confined to a situation such as encountered in Korea . No effort should be spared to get helicopters—larger than the H03S-ls if possible —but helicopters in any form, to the theater at once —and on a priority higher than any other weapon.
[11]

[11] Cited in BGen Clayton C . Jerome memo to VAdm Cassady, RAdms Soucek, Duckworth, Pride, and Goe, dtd 19Sep50, no Subj, hereafter cited as Jerome memo.

In view of General Shepherd ' s statement pertaining to the helicopter in Korea, Brigadier General Clayton C. Jerome, who relieved Major General Wallace as the Director of Aviation on 1 September 1950, sent a memorandum to Admiral Cassady in which he included General Shepherd' s statement. General Jerome said

"this emphasizes the
[remark] I made the other day in connection with the requirements for helicopters, more helicopters, and more helicopters in the Korea Area. "
[12]

[12] Jerome memo .

Major General Lamson-Scribner recalled the period: Just prior to the receipt of General Shepherd's letter, General Jerome and I attended a conference
[at] which Admiral Cassady, was chairman of the Navy Aircraft Procurement Program for Fiscal 51 . The program was for only a relatively few helicopters . We insisted that we needed more than programed for purchase . Admiral Mel Pride, Chief of BuAir, remarked in essence


`If you know as little about helicopters as we do you would not get into one .' Admiral Cassady said ,
`Mel, the Marines want them . Make some changes in the program to provide more helicopters for the Marines .'
[13]

[13] MajGen F. H. Lamson-Scribner (Ret.) ltr to Dir MCHist&Mus, dtd 23Mar75 . Comment file, "Developmental History of the Helicopter in the USMC 1946 — 1962 . "

biography

General Jerome's memo was only the latest of many attempts to convince the Department of the Navy to increase the Marine Corps ' inventory of aircraft for the Korean buildup . On 19 July, General Cates submitted a request to the Secretary of the Navy for an additional four Marine fighter squadrons in an effort to increase the total to 12 .

Apollo Soucek

Date of death: July 22, 1955
Home of record: Medford Oklahoma

Apollo Soucek graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Class of 1921. He retired as a U.S. Navy Vice Admiral.

AWARDS AND CITATIONS

Silver Star

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Awarded for actions during the World War II

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Silver Star to Captain Apollo Soucek, United States Navy, for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action against the enemy while serving as Executive Officer on board the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. HORNET (CV-8), during the operations of the U.S. Naval Forces north of the Santa Cruz, Islands, on 26 October 1942. Captain Soucek skillfully directed difficult operations, including handling of the heavy towing cable and anchor chain, which enabled the aircraft carrier to be taken into tow after she had suffered serious damage. His courageous leadership in this action and during his earlier direction of the control of fires aboard the carrier served as an inspiring example to the HORNET's crew. Captain Soucek's gallant actions and dedicated devotion to duty, without regard for his own life, were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

General Orders: Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin No. 313 (May 1943)

Action Date: 26-Oct-42

Service: Navy

Rank: Captain

Company: Executive Officer

Division: U.S.S. Hornet (CV-8)

Legion of Merit

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Awarded for actions during the World War II

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Rear Admiral Apollo Soucek, United States Navy, was awarded the Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States during World War II.

Action Date: World War II

Service: Navy

Rank: Rear Admiral

Legion of Merit

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Awarded for actions during the World War II

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Rear Admiral Apollo Soucek, United States Navy, was awarded a Gold Star in lieu of a Second Award of the Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States as Assistant Chief of Staff for Operations on the Staff of Commander Air Pacific, from January 1943 to June 1943.

General Orders: Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin No. 381 (November 1948)

Action Date: January - June 1943

Service: Navy

Rank: Rear Admiral

Distinguished Flying Cross

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Awarded for actions during the Second Nicaraguan Campaign

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Flying Cross to Lieutenant Apollo Soucek, United States Navy, for extraordinary achievement while participating in duly authorized aerial flights. Lieutenant Soucek, while carrying on high altitude experiments in connection with the development of aviation, through his achievements in the art of high altitude flying, established on 8 May 1929 a world's altitude record for heavier-than-aircraft, and on 4 June 1929 established a world's altitude record for seaplanes. These experiments are considered to be of the very highest importance in the proper development of engines, propellers, oxygen equipment and flying equipment for high altitudes. Besides the prestige gained by American aviation and Naval aviation in particular, a very large amount of valuable data has been obtained by Lieutenant Soucek who has exhibited throughout his entire naval career officer-like qualities of the highest order.

General Orders: Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin No. 144 (November 8, 1930)

Action Date: May 8, 1929

Service: Navy

Rank: Lieutenant