Biography

Twining, Nathan Farragut
[Gen G-1 USAF]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

General
Nathan Farragut Twining
biography
General Nathan F. Twining, USAF, (Ret.)
Born (1897-10-11)October 11, 1897
Monroe, Wisconsin
Died March 29, 1982(1982-03-29) (aged84)
Lackland Air Force Base, Texas
Place of burial Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch

 United States Army Air Forces

United States Air Force
Yearsof service 19151960
Rank  General
Commands held
  • Twentieth Air Force
  • Chief of Staff of the Air Force
  • Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Battles/wars
  • Mexican Border (1916)
  • World War II
Awards
  • Army Distinguished Service Medal (2)
  • Navy Distinguished Service Medal
  • Legion of Merit (2)
  • Distinguished Flying Cross
  • Bronze Star Medal
  • Air Medal (2)
  • Army Commendation Medal
  • Mexican Border Service Medal
  • World War I Victory Medal
  • Army of Occupation of Germany Medal
  • American Defense Service Medal
  • American Campaign Medal
  • Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal (10)
  • European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal (7)
  • World War II Victory Medal
  • Army of Occupation Medal
  • National Defense Service Medal
  • Order of the British Empire
  • French Legion of Honour, Commandeur Medal
  • French National Order of Merit, Commandeur Medal
  • French Croix de Guerre with bronze palm
  • French Legion of Honour, Chevalier Medal
  • Greek Order of the Phoenix
  • Yugoslavian Order of the Partisan Star with Golden Wreath (I rank)
  • Polish Gold Cross of Merit with Swords
  • Military Order of Italy, Knight Grand Cross
  • Order of the White Elephant, Knight Grand Cordon
  • South Korean Order of National Security Merit, Gugseon Medal
  • South Korean Order of Military Merit, Taegeuk Cordon
  • Aviation Cross (First Class), Republic of Peru
  • Medal of Merit, Republic of Egypt
Relations
  • Merrill B. Twining, U.S. Marine Corp General; brother
  • Nathan C. Twining, U.S. Navy Admiral; uncle

Nathan Farragut Twining, (/ˈtwaɪnɪŋ/ TWY-ning; October 11, 1897 March 29, 1982) was a United States Air Force General, born in Monroe, Wisconsin. He was Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force from 1953 until 1957. As Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1957 to 1960 he was the first member of the Air Force to serve in that role.

Military career

Nathan Twining came from a military background; his forebears had served in the United States Army and Navy since the French and Indian War. His mother was Frances Staver Twining, author of Bird-Watching in the West.

 General Twining

In 1913, Twining moved with his family to Oswego, Oregon, serving in the Oregon National Guard from 1915 to 1917. In 1917, he received an appointment to West Point. Because the program was shortened so as to produce more officers for combat, he spent only two years at the academy and graduated just a few days too late for service in World War I.

After graduating in 1918 and serving in the infantry for three years arriving in Europe in July 1919, he transferred to the Air Service. Over the next 15 years he flew fighter aircraft in Texas, Louisiana, and Hawaii, while also attending the Air Corps Tactical School and the Command and General Staff College. When World War II broke out in Europe he was assigned to the operations division on the Air Staff; then in 1942 he was sent to the South Pacific where he became chief of staff of the Allied air forces in that area.

In January 1943, he was promoted to Major General and assumed command of the Thirteenth Air Force, and that same November he traveled across the world to take over the Fifteenth Air Force from Jimmy Doolittle. On 1 February 1943, the U.S. Navy rescued Brig. Gen. Twining, the 13th Air Force Commander, and 14 others near New Hebrides Islands. They ditched their plane on the way from Guadalcanal to Espiritu Santo and spent six days in life rafts. When Germany surrendered, Arnold sent Twining back to the Pacific to command the B-29s of the Twentieth Air Force in the last push against Japan, but he was there only a short time when the atomic strikes ended the war. On 20 October 1945, Twining led three B-29s in developing a new route from Guam to Washington via India and Germany. They completed the 13,167-mile-trip in 59 hours, 30 minutes. He returned to the States where he was named commander of the Air Materiel Command, and in 1947 he took over Alaskan Air Command.

After three years there he was set to retire as a Lieutenant General, but when Muir Fairchild, the vice chief of staff, died unexpectedly of a heart attack, Twining was elevated to full General and named his successor.

In 1947, Twining was asked to study UFO reports; he recommended that a formal study of the phenomenon take place; Project Sign was the result.

 

August 31, 1950

At this time, Lt Gen Nathan F. Twining was head of personnel at Headquarters, USAF. In October, he became Vice Chief of Staff, USAF. Later he became the Air Force chief of staff and, finally, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

 

When Hoyt Vandenberg retired in mid-1953, Twining was selected as chief; during his tenure, massive retaliation based on airpower became the national strategy.

In 1957, President Eisenhower appointed Twining Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

General Twining died on March 29, 1982 at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

Awards and decorations

General Twining held the ratings of Command Pilot and Aircraft Observer. In addition, General Twining was awarded numerous personal decorations from the U.S. military and foreign countries.

Nathan Farragut Twining

Date of birth: October 11, 1897
Date of death: March 29, 1982
Place of Birth: Wisconsin, Monroe
Home of record: Monroe Wisconsin

Nathan Twining graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, Class of 1918. A member of the Army Air Forces in World War II, he became one of the leading officers in the new U.S. Air Force when it became a separate branch of service in 1947, and from August 15, 1957 to September 30, 1960, served as the 3d Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the first member of the U.S. Air Force to hold that post.

AWARDS AND CITATIONS

biography

Army Distinguished Service Medal



(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Lieutenant General Nathan Farragut Twining (ASN: 0-12366/A), United States Army Air Forces, was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 37 (1947)

Service: Army Air Forces

Rank: Lieutenant General

biography

Air Force Distinguished Service Medal



(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: General Nathan Farragut Twining (ASN: 0-12366/A), United States Air Force, was awarded a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Second Award of the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal (Army Design) for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility.

General Orders: Department of the Air Force, General Orders No. G-1 (1961)

Service: Air Force

Rank: General

biography

Navy Distinguished Service Medal



Awarded for actions during the World War II

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Distinguished Service Medal to Major General Nathan Farragut Twining (ASN: 0-12366/A), United States Army Air Forces, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in a position of great responsibility to the Government of the United States. Major General Twining relieved Rear Admiral Mitscher, U.S. navy, and assumed command of Air, Solomons, 25 July 1943. General Twining contributed in large measure to the occupation of Munda on 5 August 1943 by his continuance of offensive air power against that enemy airfield. The well planned and efficiently executed air strikes against Vella Lavella by General Twining's forces were materially responsible for the successful landings on that island, thereby effectively blocking to a great extent the Japanese supply route to Kolombangara. However, the enemy forces were still being supplied by barges operating at night and hiding along heavily forested shores during the daytime. General Twining by personal investigation, well conceived planning, and brilliantly executed strikes destroyed these barges in their lairs forcing the abandonment of Kolombangara by the Japanese. In order to proceed further into enemy held territory it was mandatory to neutralize enemy air power in the Bougainville Island area and General Twining by efficient and masterly use of air facilities at his command battered the enemy airfields at Ballale Island, Kahili, and Kieta, providing at the same time, fighter protection that effectively prevented enemy air retaliation. This reduction of enemy air facilities and our own control of the air permitted the occupation of Treasury Island and the invasion of Bougainville Island at Empress Augusta Bay. The success of this operation was insured and the path to future forward moves cleared by the air assaults on Bonis and Buka airfields thereby reducing enemy airfields in the entire Solomons Area to impotency and making them untenable for enemy operations. General Twining's personal efforts, planning, administration, and execution of offensive air power were primarily responsible for the cessation of organized enemy air resistance in the Solomons area. Major General Twining was relieved by Major General Mitchell, U.S.M.C., who assumed command of Air, Solomons, 20 November 1943.

Action Date: July 25, 1943 - November 20, 1943

Service: Army Air Forces

Rank: Major General

biography

Legion of Merit



Awarded for actions during the World War II

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Major General Nathan Farragut Twining (ASN: 0-12366/A), United States Army Air Forces, was awarded the Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States as Commanding General, THIRTEENTH Air Force, during 1942 - 1943.

Action Date: World War II

Service: Army Air Forces

Rank: Major General

Company: Commanding General

Division: 13th Air Force biography

Legion of Merit



Awarded for actions during the World War II

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Major General Nathan Farragut Twining (ASN: 0-12366/A), United States Army Air Forces, was awarded a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Second Award of the Legion of Merit for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States as Commanding General, FIFTEENTH Air Force, during 1944 - 1945.

Action Date: World War II

Service: Army Air Forces

Rank: Major General

Company: Commanding General

Division: 15th Air Force biography

Distinguished Flying Cross



Awarded for actions during the World War II

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Major General Nathan Farragut Twining (ASN: 0-12366/A), United States Army Air Forces, was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for extraordinary achievement while participating in aerial flight while Commanding the THIRTEENTH Air Force during World War II.

Action Date: World War II

Service: Army Air Forces

Rank: Major General

Company: Commanding General

Division: 13th Air Force
biography US Air Force Command Pilot Badge
biography US Army Air Forces Aircraft Observer Badge
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Army Distinguished Service Medal with bronze oak leaf cluster

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Navy Distinguished Service Medal
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Legion of Merit with bronze oak leaf cluster

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Distinguished Flying Cross

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Bronze Star Medal
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Air Medal with bronze oak leaf cluster

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Army Commendation Medal

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Mexican Border Service Medal

biography
World War I Victory Medal

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Army of Occupation of Germany Medal

biography
American Defense Service Medal

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American Campaign Medal
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Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with silver and four bronze service stars
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European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with silver and bronze service stars

biography
World War II Victory Medal

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Army of Occupation Medal

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National Defense Service Medal

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Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (United Kingdom)

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French Legion of Honour, Commandeur Medal

biography
French National Order of Merit, Commandeur Medal

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French Croix de Guerre with bronze palm

biography
French Legion of Honour, Chevalier Medal

biography
Greek Order of the Phoenix

biography
Yugoslavian Order of the Partisan Star with Golden Wreath (I rank)

biography
Polish Gold Cross of Merit with Swords

biography
Military Order of Italy, Knight Grand Cross

biography
Order of the White Elephant, Knight Grand Cordon

biography
South Korean Order of National Security Merit, Gugseon Medal

biography
South Korean Order of Military Merit, Taegeuk Cordon

biography
Aviation Cross (First Class), Republic of Peru (not worn)

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Medal of Merit, Republic of Egypt (not worn)

Honors

National Aviation Hall of Fame (1996)
A city park in Monroe, Wisconsin, Twining's birthplace, and an elementary school on the Air Force base in Grand Forks, North Dakota are named after him.
An extensive amateur astronomy observatory facility located in rural central New Mexico is named after him.