Unit Details

1st Cavalry Division

  

Division Organization

 

“The horse they never rode, the line they never held, the color running down their back,”


CG Commanding General

Rank Name From To Status
  Maj. Gen.  Hobart R. Gay      
Brig Gen Thomas L. Harrold      
Brig Gen  Frank A. Allen, Jr.      

ADC Assistant Division Commander

Rank Name From To Status
      Frank A. Allen, Jr.       
             

Division Artillery

Rank Name From To Status
             
             

CofS Chief of Staff

Rank Name From To Status
             
             

G-1 Personnel

Rank Name From To Status
             
             

G-2 Intelligence

Rank Name From To Status
             
             

G-3 Plan sand Operations

Rank Name From To Status
             
             

.
G-4 Logistics

Rank Name From To Status
             
             

 

 

 

Regiments
Unit Info  
Unit Info  
Unit Info  
     
     


 

Division 1st Cav  2nd 3rd 7th 24th 25th 40th 45th    
Regiment                 187th RCT 5th RCT
5th Cavalry  5th                  
5th RCT                   5th RCT
 7th Cavalry  7th                  
 7th Infantry      7th              
 8th Cavalry  8th                  
 9th Infantry    9th                
 14th Infantry             14th        
 15th Infantry      15th              
 17th Infantry        17th            
 19th Infantry           19th          
 21st Infantry          21st          
 23rd Infantry    23rd                
 24th Infantry             24th        
 27th Infantry             27th        
 29th Infantry                      
 31st Infantry        31st            
 32nd Infantry        32nd            
 34th Infantry          34th          
 35th Infantry             35th        
 38th Infantry    38th                
 65th Infantry      65th              
 160th Infantry              160th      
 179th Infantry                179th    
 180th Infantry                180th    
187th RCT                 187th RCT  
 223rd Infantry              223rd      
 224th Infantry              224th      
 279th Infantry                279th    
 

 

5th Cavalry

 

Johnny Johnson's 5th Cav

Col. Marcel Gustave Crombez, USA

7th Cavalry

 

Col. William "Wild Bill" A. Harris

? James K. Woolnough

8th Cavalry

wiped out 11/2/50

? Hallett D. ("Hal") Edson

? Raymond D. Palmer

 

1st Battalion

1st Battalion

? Morgan B. Heasley

A
B
C

1st Battalion

? Peter Demosthenes Clainos

A
B
C

1st Battalion

 ? John Millikin, Jr.

A
B
C

 

2nd Battalion

2nd Battalion 

? Paul T. Clifford

D
E
F

2nd Battalion

? William A. ("Billy") Harris

D
E
F

2nd Battalion

? William Walton

D
E
F

 

3rd Battalion

3rd Battalion

????

G
H
I

3rd Battalion

James H. Lynch

G
H
I

3rd Battalion

? Johnny Johnson

? Robert J. Ormond

Veale F. Moriarty's 3/8

 

 

 

The 1st Cav Division began landing unopposed and piecemeal at Pohang on July 18. First came the 8th Cav Regiment, then the 5th Cav, and lastly, the 7th Cav, delayed en route by a typhoon.

Much was expected of the 1st Cav Division. Before it "dismounted" in World War II to become regular infantry it had had a long and colorful equestrian history. Since childhood MacArthur had been mesmerized by that history and by the outfit's songs ("Garry Owen"; "She Wore a Yellow Ribbon") and legends. During World War II and the occupation of Japan the 1st Cav had been his favorite - and favored - division. The famous 7th Cavalry Regiment (which had been commanded by George Armstrong Custer at Little Bighorn) had held the place of honor in Tokyo, providing color guards, bands, and "troopers," bedecked with yellow scarves for ceremonies and parades. Before the Eighth Army levy to beef up the 24th Division, the 1st Cav had been grandly rated at "84 percent" combat ready. Initially it had been chosen for the starring role in the Inch'ŏn landing.[6-34]

 

1st Cavalry Division MedimumTank Company

OCCUPATION OF JAPAN
03 September 1945 - 18 July 1950
"HHT", 1st Cavalry Division, (Spc'l)     03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 25 Mar as "HHC", below
"HHC", 1st Cavalry Division                      25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

1st BRIGADE, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHT"                                03 Sep '45-----'49~ Inactv'd 25 Mar in Japan

    5th Cavalry Regiment                 03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorgn'd 25 Mar with Trps Dsgn'd as Cos, below
        1st Squadron, 5th Cavalry Regt
            "A" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "B" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "C" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "D" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
        2nd Squadron, 5th Cavalry Regt
            "E" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "F" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "G" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "H" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
    5th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)                   25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)
        1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regt
            "A" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "B" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "C" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "D" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
        2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regt
            "E" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "F" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "G" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "H" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
    12th Cavalry Regiment                03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan
        1st Squadron, 12th Cavalry Regt
            "A" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan         
            "B" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan         
            "C" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan         
            "D" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan         
        2nd Squadron, 12th Cavalry Regt
            "E" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan         
            "F" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan         
            "G" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan         
            "H" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49; Relv'd 25 Mar in Japan         

2nd BRIGADE, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHT"                                03 Sep '45-----'49~ Inactv'd 25 Mar in Japan

    7th Cavalry Regiment                 03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorgn'd 25 Mar with Trps Dsgn'd as Cos, below
        1st Squadron, 7th Cavalry Regt  
            "A" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "B" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "C" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "D" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
        2nd Squadron, 7th Cavalry Regt
            "E" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "F" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "G" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "H" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
    7th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)                   25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)
        1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt
            "A" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "B" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "C" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "D" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
        2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt
            "E" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "F" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "G" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "H" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
    8th Cavalry Regiment                 03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorgn'd 25 Mar with Trps Dsgn'd as Cos, below
        1st Squadron, 8th Cavalry Regt  
            "A" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "B" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "C" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "D" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
        2nd Squadron, 8th Cavalry Regt  
            "E" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "F" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "G" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
            "H" Troop                    03 Sep '45-----'49  Reorgn'd 25 Mar as Company, below
    8th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)                   25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)
        1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regt
            "A" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "B" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "C" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "D" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
        2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regt
            "E" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "F" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "G" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
            "H" Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era) 
1st Cavalry Division Special Troops
    "HHT"                                03 Sep '45-----'49;
    1st Signal Troop                     03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 25 Mar as 13th Signal Co,, below
    13th Signal Company                          25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)
    27th Ordnance Medium Maint Company   03 Sep '45------49~ Dsgn'd as 27th Ord Maint Bn, below
    27th Ordnance Maintenance Company            25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

168th Language Detachment                03 Sep '45---'48

302nd Mechanized Cavalry Recon Troop     03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 25 Mar as 16th Recon Co,, below
16th Reconnaissance Company                      25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

603rd Medium Tank Company                03 Sep '45---'48; Relv'd 18 Mar from 1st Cav Div at Camp Drake

71st Heavy Tank Battalion                        25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

95th Light Tank Company                      30 Sep '47-

1st Medical Squadron                     03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 25 Mar as 15th Medical Bn, below

Medical Det, 1st Cavalry Division                       '49/0~ (Con't next era)

15th Medical Battalion                           25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

DIVISION ARTILLERY, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHB", Division Artillery            03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorg'd 25 Mar, below
    "HHB", Division Artillery                    25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)
    Medical Detachment                                  '49/0~ (Con't next era)

    61st Field Artillery Battalion       03 Sep '45-------'50~ (Con't next era)

    77th Field Artillery Battalion               25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

    82nd Field Artillery Battalion       03 Sep '45-------'50~ (Con't next era)
        "A" Btry, 82nd Field Arty        03 Sep '45-------'50~ (Con't next era)
        "B" Btry, 82nd Field Arty        03 Sep '45-------'50~ (Con't next era)
        "C" Btry, 82nd Field Arty        03 Sep '45-------'50~ (Con't next era)

    92nd A/A Arty Automatic Wpns Bn              14 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

    99th Field Artillery Battalion       03 Sep '45-------'50~ (Con't next era)

    271st Field Artillery Battalion      03 Sep '45-----'49~ Dsgn'd 25 Mar as 77th Field Arty Bn, below

8th Engineer Combat Squadron             03 Sep '45-----'49~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 25 Mar as 8th Combat Bn, below
8th Engineer Combat Battalion                    25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

Band, 1st Cavalry Division               03 Sep '45-------'50~ (Con't next era)

16th Cavalry Quartermaster Squadron      03 Sep '45/6' Reorg'd, Convrt'd & Dsgn'd as follows:
    "HHT"                                03 Sep '45/6~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 15 Nov as "HHT" 16th QtrMstr Sqdn, below
    Trp "A", 16th Cav QtrMstr Sqdn       03 Sep '45/6~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 15 Nov as 18th Transport'n Truck Trp, below
    Trp "B", 16th Cav QtrMstr Sqdn       03 Sep '45/6~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 15 Nov as 19th Transport'n Truck Trp, below
    Trp "C", 16th Cav QtrMstr Sqdn       03 Sep '45/6~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 15 Nov as 15th QtrMster Pack Trp, below

16th Quartermaster Squadron                15 Nov '46---'49~ Convert'd & Dsgn'd 15 Mar as 15th Replc'mt Co, below
    "HHT"                                  15 Nov '46---'49; Inactv'd 31 May at Osaka Japan
    "HHC"                                        25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)
    15th Quartermaster Pack Troop          15 Nov '46/7~ Dsgn'd 31 Mar as 15th QtrMster Trp, below
    15th Quartermaster Troop                   31 Mar '47/9~ Dsgn'd 25 Mar as 15th QtrMstr Co, below
    15th Quartermaster Company                   25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)
    18th Transportation Truck Trp          15 Nov '46--
    19th Transportation Truck Trp          15 Nov '46--

15th Replacement Company                       25 Mar '49/0 (Con't next era)

Mil Police Plt, 1st Cav Div (Spc'l)   03 Sep '45------'49~ Dsgn'd 25 Mar as 545th Mltry Police Co, below
545th Mil Police Company                       25 Mar '49/0~ (Con't next era)

OPCON ROUND UP UNITS
    3rd Battalion, 141st Inf Regt (TXARNG)        '46------'50~ (Con't next era)


		
KOREAN WAR
18 July 1950 - 31 December 1951

"HHC", 1st Cavalry Division              18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
Medical Det, 1st Cavalry Division        18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

5th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)               18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regt      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "A" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "B" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "C" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "D" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regt      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "E" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "F" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "G" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "H" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regt      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "I" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "K" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "L" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "M" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)

7th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)               18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "A" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "B" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "C" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "D" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "E" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "F" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "G" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "H" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    3rd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "I" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "K" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "L" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "M" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    4th Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt      19 Dec '50/1; Greek Expeditionary Force
        "A" Company                      19 Dec '50/1;
        "B" Company                      19 Dec '50/1;
        "C" Company                      19 Dec '50/1;
        "D" Company                      19 Dec '50/1;

8th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)               18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regt      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "A" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "B" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "C" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "D" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regt      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "E" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "F" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "G" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "H" Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regt      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "I" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "K" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "L" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "M" Company                      29 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)

13th Signal Company                      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

27th Ordnance Maintenance Company        18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

16th Reconnaissance Company              18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

70th Tank Battalion                      10 Nov '50/1~ (Con't next era)

71st Heavy Tank Battalion                18 Jul '50~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 05 Aug as 71st Tank Bn, below
71st Tank Battalion                      05 Aug '50/1~ (Con't next era)

15th Medical Battalion                   18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

DIVISION ARTILLERY, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHB"                                18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
    Medical Detachment                   18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

    50th A/A Arty AW Bn (SP)               10 Nov '51~ (Con't next era)
    
    61st Field Artillery Battalion       18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

    77th Field Artillery Battalion       18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

    82nd Field Artillery Battalion       18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "A" Btry, 82nd Field Arty        18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "B" Btry, 82nd Field Arty        18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
        "C" Btry, 82nd Field Arty        18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

    92nd A/A Arty Automatic Wpns Bn      18 Jul '50/1; Inactv'd 28 Dec in Korea

    99th Field Artillery Battalion       18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

8th Engineer Combat Battalion            18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

Band, 1st Cavalry Division               18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

15th Quartermaster Company               18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

15th Replacement Company                 18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

191st Counter Intelligence Corps Det     06 Oct '50/1~ (Con't next era)

545th Mil Police Company                 18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)
 
OPCON ROUND UP UNITS
    3rd Bn, 141st Inf Regt (TXARNG)      18 Jul '50/1~ (Con't next era)

ATTACHED UNITS

Infantry
    5th Regimental Combat Team           14 Sep '50/1; Relv'd 30 Jan
    4th Ranger Infantry Company          31 Dec '50/1; Relv'd 01 Aug
    3rd Battalion, 19th Inf Regt         29 Jul '50; Relv'd 01 Aug
    21st Infantry Regiment               29 Jul '50/1; Relv'd 18 Feb
    23rd Infantry Regiment               18 Aug '50; Relv'd 05 Sep
    24th Infantry Regiment                 14 Feb '51; Relv'd 01 Aug
    27th Infantry Regiment                18 Aug '50; Relv'd 01 Sep
    1st Battalion, 35th Inf Regiment     26 Jul '50; Relv'd 29 Jul
    52nd Inf Counterfire Platoon           30 Jul '51; Relv'd 28 Oct
    58th Inf Counterfire Platoon           13 Aug '51; Relv'd 28 Oct
    64th Inf Counterfire Platoon           31 Aug '51; Relv'd 28 Oct
    65th Infantry Regiment                 18 Nov '51; Relv'd 20 Nov
    187th Inf Counterfire Platoon          03 Nov '51; Relv'd 28 Nov
            
Armor
    Co "B", 6th Tank Bn, 24th Inf Div    12 Oct '50; Relv'd 13 Oct
    Co "D", 6th Tank Bn, 24th Inf Div      14 Feb '51; Relv'd 16 Feb during Task Force "Crombez"
    64th Tank Battalion                    15 May '51; Relv'd 19 Oct
    70th Tank Battalion                  12 Aug '50/1; Relv'd Asign'd 10 Nov to 1st Cav Div, above
    Co "C", 73rd Tank Battalion          03 Sep '50; Relv'd 04 Sep
    Co "A", 79th Tank Battalion            31 Jul '51; Relv'd 03 Aug
    89th Tank Battalion                  10 Oct '50; Relv'd 20 Oct
        
Artillery
    1st Field Arty Observation Battalion 29 Aug '50; Relv'd 24 Nov
    2nd Chemical Mortar Battalion        10 Nov '50; Relv'd 22 Nov
    9th Field Arty Battalion             28 Aug '50; Relv'd 20 Nov
    10th Anti Aircraft Arty Group        15 Sep '50; Relv'd 10 Nov
    13th Field Arty Battalion            11 Oct '50; Relv'd 15 Oct
    15th Field Arty Battalion            06 Nov '50; Relv'd 10 Nov
    17th Field Arty Battalion            13 Sep '50/1; Relv'd 30 Oct
    34th Countermortar Radar Detachment    11 Sep '51; Relv'd 28 Oct
    36th Countermortar Radar Detachment    18 Oct '51; Relv'd 28 Oct
    Btry "C", 37th Field Arty Battalion  29 Aug '50; Relv'd 05 Sep
    39th Field Arty Battalion              19 Nov '51; Relv'd 20 Nov
    Btry "B", 49th Field Arty Battalion    06 Oct '51; Relv'd 19 Oct
    58th Armored Field Arty Battalion      18 Nov '51; Relv'd 20 Nov
    64th Field Arty Battalion            08 Jul '50; Relv'd 20 Jul
    68th Anti Aircraft Arty Gun Bn       15 Sep '50; Relv'd 21 Sep
    78th Anti Aircraft Arty Gun Bn       15 Sep '50; Relv'd 10 Nov
    90th Field Arty Battalion            11 Oct '50/1; Relv'd 12 May
    92nd Armored Field Arty Battalion      14 Feb '51; Relv'd 24 Mar
    96th Field Arty Battalion              26 Jan '51; Relv'd 06 Feb
    204th Field Arty Battalion             22 Jun '51; Relv'd 18 Oct
    436th Field Arty Battalion             17 Jul '51; Relv'd 30 Jul
    555th Field Arty Battalion           14 Sep '50/1; Relv'd 30 Jan
    936th Field Arty Battalion           29 May '50/1; Relv'd 21 Oct
    955th Field Arty Battalion             08 Oct '51; Relv'd 30 Oct
    999th Armored Field Arty Battalion     22 Feb '51; Relv'd 27 Apr

Support Units
    37th Preventative Medicine Company     18 Oct '51; Relv'd 20 Dec
    38th Medical Malaria Control Det       07 Jul '51; Relv'd 23 Jul
    1st Plt, 126th Signal Service Company  22 Oct '51; Relv'd 25 Oct
    501st Army Postal Unit                 01 Oct '51~ (Con't next era)
    8063rd Mil Army Surgeon Hospital     07 Jul '50; Relv'd 28 Jul

Allied Units
    16th New Zealand Arty Regiment         20 Mar '51; Relv'd 22 Mar
    21st Thailand Infantry Regiment        19 Jan '51; Relv'd 13 May
    21st Thailand Infantry Battalion       19 Jan '51; Relv'd 22 Dec
    25th Canadian Infantry Brigade         16 Jun '51; Relv'd 16 Jul
    27th British Commonwealth Inf Bde    01 Sep '50; Relv'd 08 Dec
    28th British Commonwealth Inf Bde
        The King's Shropshire Light Inf
        The King's Own Scottish Borderers
        Royal Australian Regiment
    29th British Commonwealth Inf Bde      29 May '51; Relv'd 03 Jun
    Belgian Infantry Battalion             15 Oct '51; Relv'd 12 Nov
    Greek Infantry Brigade               13 Dec '50/1; Relv'd 28 Nov
    Netherlands Battalion                   Oct '50;
    Philippine 10th Bn Combat Team       13 Dec '50/1; Relv'd 10 Jan
    Turkish Brigade                         Oct '50;


		
RETURN TO JAPAN
01 January 1952 - 15 October 1957

"HHC", 1st Cavalry Division              30 Dec '51---------'57~ Con't next era
Medical Det, 1st Cavalry Division        30 Dec '51---------'57~ Inactv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div

    5th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)           30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
            "A" Co, 5th Cavalry Regt     30 Dec '51---------'57~ Dsgn'd 15 Oct as "HHC", 1st Btl Grp, 5th Cav (Con't next era)
        2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        Tank Co, 5th Cavalry Regt        30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd & Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div

    7th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)           30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
            "A" Co, 7th Cavalry Regt     30 Dec '51---------'57~ Dsgn'd 15 Oct as "HHC", 1st Btl Grp, 7th Cav (Con't next era)
        2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        3rd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        Tank Co, 7th Cavalry Regt        30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd & Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div

    8th Cavalry Regiment (Inf)           30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
            "A" Co, 8th Cavalry Regt     30 Dec '51---------'57~ Dsgn'd 15 Oct as "HHC", 1st Btl Grp, 8th Cav (Con't next era)
        Tank Co, 8th Cavalry Regt        30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div
        3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regt  30 Dec '51---------'57~ Inactv'd & Relv'd 15 Oct

16th Reconnaissance Company              30 Dec '51---------'57~ (Con't next era)

70th Tank Battalion                      30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd & Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div

41st Infantry Scout Dog Platoon                21 Feb '54---

DIVISION ARTILLERY, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHB", 1st Cavalry Division Arty     30 Dec '51---------'57~ (Con't next era)

    Medical Det, Division Arty           30 Dec '51---------'57~ Dsgn'd 15 Oct as "HHB" Med Sectn (Con't next era)

    29th A/A Arty Automatic Wpns Bn      27 Dec '51-'53~ Dsgn'd 01 Apr as 29th A/A Arty Bn, below
       "A" Btry, 29th A/A Arty AW Bn     27 Dec '51-'53~
       "B" Btry, 29th A/A Arty AW Bn     27 Dec '51-'53~
       "C" Btry, 29th A/A Arty AW Bn     27 Dec '51-'53~
    29th A/A Artillery Battalion             01 Apr '53-----'57; Inactv'd & Relv'd 15 Oct from 1st Cav Div

    50th A/A Arty AW Bn (SP)             30 Dec '51-----

    61st FA Battalion (105mm How)        30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct

    77th FA Battalion (105mm How)        30 Dec '51---------'57~ Inactv'd 15 Oct

    82nd FA Battalion (155mm How)        30 Dec '51---------'57~ Inactv'd 15 Oct
        "A" Btry, 82nd FA Battalion      30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct
        "B" Btry, 82nd FA Battalion      30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct
        "C" Btry, 82nd FA Battalion      30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct

    99th FA Battalion (105mm How)        30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Jul in Japan

    268th Field Artillery Battalion (Gyroscope Unit)     '56/57; Inactv'd in Japan

Band, 1st Cavalry Division               30 Dec '51---------'57~ (Con't next era)

8th Engineer Combat Battalion            30 Dec '51---'54~ Reorgn'd & Desgn'd 10 Mar as 8th Engr Bn, below
8th Engineer Battalion                         10 Mar '54---'57~ (Con't next era)
    Medical Detachment                         10 Mar '54---'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct
    "A" Co, 8th Engineer Bn                    10 Mar '54---'57~ (Con't next era)
    "B" Co, 8th Engineer Bn                    10 Mar '54---'57~ (Con't next era)
    "C" Co, 8th Engineer Bn                    10 Mar '54---'57~ (Con't next era)
    "D" Co, 8th Engineer Bn                    10 Mar '54---'57~ (Con't next era)
    "E" Co, 8th Engineer Bn                    10 Mar '54---'57~ (Con't next era)

15th Medical Battalion                   30 Dec '51---------'57~ (Con't next era)

15th Quartermaster Company               30 Dec '51---------'57~ (Con't next era)

15th Replacement Company                 30 Dec '51---------'57~ Dsgn'd 15 Oct as 15th Admin Co (Con't next era)

27th Ordnance Maintenance Company        30 Dec '51-'53~ Desgn'd 01 Jan as 27th Ord Bn, below
27th Ordnance Battalion                      01 Jan '53-----'57~ (Con't next era)

SEPARATE BATTALIONS/COMPANIES

    13th Signal Company                  30 Dec '51---------'57~ (Con't next era as HHC 13th Signal Bn)

    191st Counter Intelligence Det       30 Dec '51-------'56

    545th Mil Police Company             30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct & Relv'd from 1st Cav Div
       1st Traffic Plt                   30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct & Relv'd from 1st Cav Div
       2nd Traffic Plt                   30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct & Relv'd from 1st Cav Div
       3rd Traffic Plt                   30 Dec '51---------'57; Inactv'd 15 Oct & Relv'd from 1st Cav Div

ATTACHED UNITS

Support Units

    36th Ordnance Company                  01 Oct '52/3; 27 Jul
    49th Ordnance Company                  01 Oct '52/3; 27 Jul
    501st Army Postal Unit               30 Dec '51-'53; 27 Jul
    510th Mil Police Platoon               01 Oct '52/3; 27 Jul
    8016th Army Unit                       01 Sep '52/3; 27 Jul
    8029th Army Unit                       01 Oct '52/3; 27 Jul
    8145th Army Unit                       01 Oct '52/3; 27 Jul
    8196th Army Unit                       01 Oct '52/3; 27 Jul

TOE of the 1st Cavalry during World War II

Having come across this thread while looking for an OOB/TO&E for the 1st Cavalry Division, I thought I would share what I found (or didn't). I went through about a dozen sources and found a very good order of battle at first-team.us/tableaux/apndx_03/



Building a good TO&E is a lot more difficult as the sources are inconsistent and contradictory,sometimes with themselves!



A Cavalry Rifle Squadron (Battalion) consisted of a small HQ (20 Troopers), three Rifle Troops (Companies) and a Heavy Weapons Troop.


The consensus seems to be that a Troop (Company) was 167 Troopers with three rifle platoons of 29 Troopers. The Platoons were composed of a 5 man HQ and three eight trooper squads. Each squad had a Squad Leader with an SMG, a BAR man, an assistant BAR man (armed with an M1903 rifle with M1 grenade launcher) and five troopers armed with M1 rifles.


A little math shows that 80 troopers are unaccounted for, so it seems likely that there was a Heavy Weapons Platoon. It appears that the Weapons Platoon had a five man HQ, an LMG (2 x M1919A4) squad of 12 Troopers, an HMG (2 x M2HB) squad of 15 troopers and a Mortar (2 x M2) squad of 9 Troopers for a total of 41. This leaves 39 men for the HQ. These numbers for the HQ and Weapons Platoon are slightly larger than their infantry company counterparts.


An alternative configuration would have three 41 man platoons (same as an infantry company), a 35 man Troop HQ (same as an infantry company HQ) and a nine man mortar squad (instead of the 35 man infantry company weapons platoon).


Both configurations give a total of 167 troopers, although the first will generate more firepower.


The Cavalry Rifle Squadron had a 20 man HQ, three 167 man rifle troops and a 174 man heavy weapons troop (with the same weapons as a 160 man infantry battalion heavy weapons company)m for a total of 695 troopers.
The Cavalry regiment had two rifle squadrons an HQ Troop (210 men), a service troop (178 men), a heavy weapons troop (174 men) and two rifle squadrons (695 each). The Regimental Heavy Weapons troop was similar to the squadron heavy weapons troop, except that all the HMG were .50 cal weapons. The Regimental HQ included a reconnaissance platoon (36 men). All together this gives a regiment of 1952 troopers. In July 1945 the regiments and squadrons converted to infantry TO&E, but the regiments still only had two squadrons (as opposed to three in an infantry regiment).


The brigade HQ of 182 troopers included a reconnaissance platoon and a three gun anti-tank platoon. The brigade totaled 4086 troopers.
The 1st cavalry had two 105mm howitzer battalions and two 75mm howitzer battalions. The 75mm battalions converted to 105mm in July 1945.


Uniquely, the division included a light tank company (117 men and 18 tanks; converted to medium in either Dec 43 or March 45), as well as the normal mechanized calvary recon troop (155 men) and an Engineer Squadron (539 men). The Special Troops (a signal troop; maintenance Bn; quartermaster Co, MP, and medical squadron; about 1,400 men) rounded out the division.


A 155mm battalion was attached in October 1944. Rottman says the battalion was eventually assigned to the division in Jan 45, but this is not shown in Stanton or other sources.


The 112th Cavalry Regimental Combat Team, was attached to the division with the 112th Cavalry regiment and a 105mm howitzer battalion. According to Rottman the 112th was attached from Nov 1944 on, but the other sources indicate that it was detached in Feb 45.


Rottman and Stanton give the authorized size of the division (in December 1943?) as 13,258 although both also say the total was around 15,000.

 

 

 

====================

 

 

1st U.S. Cavalry Division

 

Division 1st Cav  2nd 3rd 7th 24th 25th 40th 45th    
Regiment                 187th RCT 5th RCT
5th Cavalry  5th                  
5th RCT                   5th RCT
 7th Cavalry  7th                  
 7th Infantry      7th              
 8th Cavalry  8th                  
 9th Infantry    9th                
 14th Infantry             14th        
 15th Infantry      15th              
 17th Infantry        17th            
 19th Infantry           19th          
 21st Infantry          21st          
 23rd Infantry    23rd                
 24th Infantry             24th        
 27th Infantry             27th        
 29th Infantry                      
 31st Infantry        31st            
 32nd Infantry        32nd            
 34th Infantry          34th          
 35th Infantry             35th        
 38th Infantry    38th                
 65th Infantry      65th              
 160th Infantry              160th      
 179th Infantry                179th    
 180th Infantry                180th    
187th RCT                 187th RCT  
 223rd Infantry              223rd      
 224th Infantry              224th      
 279th Infantry                279th    

 

1st Cavalry Division Organization

CG

Rank Name From To Status
Raymond D. Palmer

ADC

Rank Name From To Status
Raymond D. Palmer

G-1 Personnel

Rank Name From To Status
Raymond D. Palmer

G-2 Intelligence

Rank Name From To Status
Raymond D. Palmer

G-3 Plan sand Operations

Rank Name From To Status
Raymond D. Palmer

G-4 Logistics

Rank Name From To Status
Raymond D. Palmer

 

 

Regiments

5th Calvary Regiment

 

7th Cavalry Regiment

8th Cavalry Regiment

 

 

 

16th Recon Company

 

Tank Company

 

Headquarters, 1st Cavalry Division    13 Sep '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)

1st BRIGADE, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHT"                             20 Aug '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)

    1st Machine Gun Squadron                 '21-----------'28; Dsbnd'd 01 Feb

 

 


    1st Cavalry Regiment              20 Aug '21---------------------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div
        "HHT"                                '21---------------------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div
        Machine Gun Squadron                        01 Dec '28-------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div
        1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry Regt       '21---------------------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div
            "A" Troop                        '21---------------------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div
            "B" Troop                        '21---------------------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div
            "C" Troop                        '21-----------'28; Dsbnd'd 01 Feb
        2nd Squadron, 1st Cavalry Regt       '21---------------------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div
            "D" Troop                        '21-----------'28; Dsbnd'd 01 Feb
            "E" Troop                        '21---------------------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div
            "F" Troop                        '21---------------------'33; Relv'd 03 Jan from 1st Cav Div

 


    5th Cavalry Regiment                18 Dec '22-----------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        "HHT"                                  '22-----------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        Machine Gun Squadron                        01 Dec '28-----------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        1st Squadron, 5th Cavalry Regt         '22-----------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "A" Troop                          '22-----------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "B" Troop                          '22-----------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "C" Troop                          '22---------'28; Dsbnd'd 01 Feb Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)
        2nd Squadron, 5th Cavalry Regt         '22-----------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "E" Troop                          '22-----------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "F" Troop                          '22-----------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "G" Troop                                                       01 Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)

 


    10th Cavalry Regiment             13 Sep '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
        "HHT"                                '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
        1st Squadron, 10th Cavalry Regt      '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
            "A" Troop                        '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
            "B" Troop                        '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
            "C" Troop                        '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
        2nd Squadron, 10th Cavalry Regt      '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
            "D" Troop                        '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
            "E" Troop                        '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div
            "F" Troop                        '21/2; Relv'd 18 Dec from 1st Cav Div

    12th Cavalry Regiment                                     03 Jan '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        "HHT"                                                        '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        Machine Gun Troop                                            '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        1st Squadron, 12th Cavalry Regt                              '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "A" Troop                                                '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "B" Troop                                                '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "C" Troop                                                       01 Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)
        2nd Squadron, 12th Cavalry Regt                              '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "D" Troop                                                       01 Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)
            "E" Troop                                                '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "F" Troop                                                '33-------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "G" Troop                                                       01 Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)

2nd BRIGADE, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHT"                             20 Aug '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
    2nd Machine Gun Squadron                 '21-----------'28; Dsbnd'd 01 Feb

    7th Cavalry Regiment              13 Sep '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        "HHT"                                '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        Machine Gun Squadron                        01 Dec '28-----------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        1st Squadron, 7th Cavalry Regt       '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "A" Troop                        '21-------------------------------------'41  (Con't next era)
            "B" Troop                        '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "C" Troop                        '21-----------'28; Dsbnd'd 01 Feb Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)
        2nd Squadron, 7th Cavalry Regt       '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "E" Troop                        '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "F" Troop                        '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "G" Troop                        '21-----------'28; Dsbnd'd 31 Jan Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)

    8th Cavalry Regiment              13 Sep '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        "HHT"                                '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        Machine Gun Squadron                        01 Dec '28-----------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
        1st Squadron, 8th Cavalry Regt       '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "A" Troop                        '21-------------------------------------'41  (Con't next era)
            "B" Troop                        '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "C" Troop                        '21-----------'28; Dsbnd'd 01 Feb Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)
        2nd Squadron, 8th Cavalry Regt       '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "E" Troop                        '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "F" Troop                        '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
            "G" Troop                                                       01 Aug '40/1~ (Con't next era)

SPECIAL TROOPS, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHT"                             13 Sep '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
    10th Light Tank Company                  '21-----------'28; Inactv'd
    13th Signal Troop                 13 Sep '21-'23~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 13 Dec as 1st Signal Trp, below
    1st Signal Troop                      13 Dec '23---------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)
    15th Veterinary Company                  '21-------'26;
    27th Ordnance Company             20 Sep '21-------------------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)

1st Cavalry Division Air Service
    1st Observation Squadron, US Air Corps           Oct '27-`29; Feb

1st Armored Car Squadron                               Nov '28-----------------------'41~ Redsgn'd 91st Recon Sqdn, below

91st Reconnaissance Squadron                                                  03 Jan '41~ (Con't next era)

1st Antitank Troop                                                            03 Jan '41~ (Con't next era)

43rd Ambulance Company                       '21-------'26~

1st Medical Squadron                            01 Jun '26---------------------------'41~ (Con't next era)

Military Police Plt, Hdqtrs Troop                                         15 Feb '39-'41~ (Con't next era)

82nd Field Artillery Battalion        09 Sep '21---------------'30~ Dsgn'd 17 Mar as 1st Bn, below
    "A" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn             '21---------------'30~ Dsgn'd 17 Mar as "A" Btry, 1st Bn, below
    "B" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn             '21---------------'30~ Dsgn'd 17 Mar as "B" Btry, 1st Bn, below
    "C" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn             '21---------------'30~ Dsgn'd 17 Mar as "C" Btry, 1st Bn, below
    1st Battalion, 82nd Field Artillery                 17 Mar '30-------------------'41~ Dsgn'd as 82nd Field Artillery Battalion, below
        "A" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn                    17 Mar '30-------------------'41~
        "B" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn                    17 Mar '30-------------------'41~
        "C" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn                    17 Mar '30-----'34~ Inactv'd 01 Dec at Ft. Bliss, TX
        "D" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn                    17 Mar '30-------------------'41~
        "E" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn                    17 Mar '30-------------------'41~
        "F" Btry, 82nd Field Arty Bn                    17 Mar '30-------------------'41~

DIVISION ARTILLERY, 1st Cavalry Division
    "HHB"                                                                     03 Jan '41~ (Con't next era)

    61st Field Artillery Battalion                                            03 Jan '41~ (Con't next era)

    62nd Field Artillery Battalion                                            10 Feb '41~ (Con't next era)

    82nd Field Artillery Battalion                                            03 Jan '41~ (Con't next era)
        "A" Btry, 1st Bn, 82nd Field Arty                                     03 Jan '41~ (Con't next era)
        "B" Btry, 1st Bn, 82nd Field Arty                                     03 Jan '41~ (Con't next era)
        "C" Btry, 1st Bn, 82nd Field Arty                                     03 Jan '41~ (Con't next era)
        "D" Btry, 1st Bn, 82nd Field Arty                                     03 Jan '41~ (Absrb'd by "A" Btry, next era)
        "E" Btry, 1st Bn, 82nd Field Arty                                     03 Jan '41~ (Absrb'd by "B" Btry, next era)
        "F" Btry, 1st Bn, 82nd Field Arty                                     03 Jan '41~ (Absrb'd by "C" Btry, next era)

8th Engineer Battalion (Mounted)      27 Jul '21---------------'30~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 01 Jan as 8th Engr Sqdn, below
8th Engineer Squadron                                   01 Jun '30-------------------'41~ (Con't next era)

TRAINS, 1st Cavalry Division          20 Sep '21---------------------------'36~ Reorg'd & Dsgn'd 01 May as 16th QtrMstr Sqdn, below
    "HHT"                             20 Sep '21---------------------------'36~ Asgn'd 01 May to 16th QtrMstr Sqdn, below
    1st Pack Train                    20 Sep '21---------------------------'36;
    2nd Pack Train                    20 Sep '21---------------------------'36;
    3rd Pack Train                    20 Sep '21---------------------------'36;
    4th Pack Train                    20 Sep '21---------------------------'36;
    25th Wagon Company                20 Sep '21-----------'28;
    26th Wagon Company                20 Sep '21---------------------------'36;
    49th Motor Transport Company                           '28-------------'36;
    81st Motor Repair Section                              '28-------------'36;
    250th Motor Transport Company                (Inactive)

16th Quartermaster Squadron                                         01 May '36-------'41~ (Con't next era)
    "HHT"                                                           01 May '36-------'41~ (Con't next era)

ATTACHED UNITS
   
Cavalry
    56th Cavalry Brigade (TXNG)
    "HHT"                                                                   18 Nov '40/1~ (Con't next era)
    111th Cavalry Regiment (New Mexico)                                     18 Nov '40/1;
    112th Cavalry Regiment (North Texas)                                    18 Nov '40/1~ (Con't next era)
    124th Cavalry Regiment (South Texas)                                    18 Nov '40/1~ (Con't next era)

 

1st Cavalry Division (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1st Cavalry Division

Shoulder sleeve insignia
Active 1921 – Present
Country  United States
Branch Regular Army
Type Heavy division (unit of action)
Size 16,700 soldiers
Part of III Corps
Garrison/HQ Fort Hood, Texas
Patron St George
Motto The First Team!
Colors Black & Yellow
March Garryowen
Mascot Horse
Engagements World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
Operation Desert Storm
Global War on Terrorism
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
Commanders
Current
commander
Major General Anthony R. Ierardi
Notable
commanders
Complete list of commanders
Insignia
Distinctive Unit Insignia  

The 1st Cavalry Division ("First Team") is one of the most famous and most decorated combat divisions of the United States Army. It is based at Fort Hood, Texas. It was formed in 1921 and served during World War II, Korea, Vietnam, the Persian Gulf War, with the Stabilization Force in Bosnia-Herzegovina, in the Iraq War, and in the War in Afghanistan (2001-present).

As of 2012, the 1st Cavalry Division is subordinate to III Corps and is commanded by Major General Anthony R. Ierardi.

History

Birth

The history of the 1st Cavalry Division began in 1921 after the Army established a permanent cavalry division table of organization and equipment on 4 April 1921. It authorized a square division organization of 7,463 officers and men, organized as follows:

1st Cavalry Division's Horse Cavalry Detachment charge during a ceremony at Fort Bliss, Texas, 2005.

On 20 August 1921, the War Department Adjutant General constituted the 1st and 2d Cavalry Divisions to meet partial mobilization requirements, and authorized the establishment of the 1st Cavalry Division under the new TO&E on 31 August 1921. Since 1st Cavalry Division was to assemble from existing units, it was able to go active in September 1921, even though the subordinate units did not arrive at their assigned stations completely until as late as 1922.

1st Cavalry Division was assigned to the VIII Corps Area, with its division headquarters and 2d Brigade located at Fort Bliss, Texas, and the 1st Brigade at Douglas, Arizona. The headquarters facilities used by 1st Cavalry Division were those previously vacated by 8th United States Brigade when it was commanded by MG John J. Pershing in 1916, and the wartime 15th Cavalry Division, which had existed at Fort Bliss between 10 December 1917 and 12 May 1918.

 

1st Cavalry Division Band - Operation Iraqi Freedom 2 Color Uncasing Ceremony Fort Hood,TX

Headquarters, 2nd Cavalry Brigade, had existed at Fort Bliss since 10 December 1917, when it was part of the wartime 15th Cavalry Division. Headquarters, 2nd Cavalry Brigade was deactivated in July 1919, and was reactivated at Fort Bliss on 31 August 1920.

Headquarters, 1st Cavalry Brigade had previously existed at Fort Sam Houston, but their quarters had been vacated when 1st Cavalry Brigade deactivated in July 1919. These facilities passed to the 2nd Infantry Division when they returned from France. 1st Cavalry Brigade was reactivated on 31 August 1920 at Douglas, Arizona, occupying the facilities left vacant when Headquarters, 3rd Cavalry Brigade was deactivated in July 1919.

First Cavalry Division’s Troop List was slowly assembled. The 1st, 7th, and 8th Cavalry Regiments had previously been assigned to the wartime 15th Cavalry Division until they were returned to the VIII Corps Area Troop List on 12 May 1918. 1st Cavalry Regiment remained so assigned until it was transferred to 1st Cavalry Division on 20 August 1921. The 7th, 8th, and 10th Cavalry Regiments were transferred on 13 September 1921, although the assignment of the 10th Cavalry Regiment to the 1st Cavalry Division was controversial because the transfer violated the Jim Crow laws. This controversy continued until 18 December 1922, when the 5th Cavalry Regiment, then on the VIII Corps Area Troop List, swapped places with the 10th Cavalry Regiment on the 1st Cavalry Division Troop List.

The 1st Cavalry Division illustrated all of the aspects of the Army's dilemma between realism and idealism. In 1923 the 1st Cavalry Division held division maneuvers for the first time, intending to hold them annually thereafter. However, financial constraints made that impossible. Only in 1927, through the generosity of a few ranchers who provided free land, was the division able to conduct such exercises again.

In 1928 Maj. Gen. Herbert B. Crosby, Chief of Cavalry, faced with personnel cuts in his arm, reorganized the cavalry regiments, which in turn reduced the size of the 1st Cavalry Division. Crosby's goal was to decrease overhead while maintaining or increasing firepower in the regiment. After the reorganization each cavalry regiment consisted of a headquarters and headquarters troop; a machine gun troop; a medical and chaplain element; and two squadrons, each with a headquarters element; and two line troops. The cavalry brigades' machine gun squadrons were inactivated, while the responsibility for training and employing machine guns fell to the regimental commanders, as in the infantry.

About the same time that Crosby cut the cavalry regiment, the Army Staff, seeking to increase the usefulness of the wartime cavalry division, published new tables of organization for an even larger unit. The new structure summarized changes made in the division since 1921, which involved increasing the size of the signal troop (177), expanding the medical unit to a squadron (233), and endorsing Crosby's movement of the machine gun units from the brigades to the regiments (2X176). A divisional aviation section, an armored car squadron (278), and tank company (155) were added, and the field artillery battalion was expanded to a regiment (1,717). Divisional strength rose to 9,595. Although the new tables had little impact on the peacetime cavalry structure, the 1st Cavalry Division did eventually receive one troop of an experimental armored car squadron, and a field artillery regiment replaced its field artillery battalion.

Prelude to World War II

With the arrival of the 1930s, serious work started on the testing and refining of new equipment and TO&Es for a mechanized and motorized Army. To facilitate this, 1st Cavalry Division traded 1st Cavalry Regiment for 12th Cavalry Regiment on 3 January 1933.

Taking into account recommendations from the VIII Corps Area, the Army War College, and the Command and General Staff School, the board developed a new smaller triangular cavalry division, which the 1st Cavalry Division evaluated during maneuvers at Toyahvale, Texas, in 1938. Like the 1937 infantry division test, the maneuvers concentrated on the divisional cavalry regiments around which all other units were to be organized.

Following the test, a board of 1st Cavalry Division officers, headed by Brig. Gen. Kenyon A. Joyce, rejected the three-regiment division and recommended retention of the two-brigade (four-regiment) organization. The latter configuration allowed the division to deploy easily in two columns, which was accepted standard cavalry tactics. However, the board advocated reorganizing the cavalry regiment along triangular lines, which would give it a headquarters and headquarters troop, a machine gun squadron with special weapons and machine gun troops, and three rifle squadrons, each with one machine gun and three rifle troops. No significant change was made in the field artillery, but the test showed that the engineer element should remain a squadron to provide the divisional elements greater mobility on the battlefield and that the special troops idea should be extended to include the division headquarters, signal, and ordnance troops; quartermaster, medical, engineer, reconnaissance, and observation squadrons; and a chemical warfare detachment. One headquarters would assume responsibility for the administration and disciplinary control for these forces.

Although the study did not lead to a general reorganization of the cavalry division, the wartime cavalry regiment was restructured, effective 1 December 1938, to consist of a headquarters and headquarters troop, machine gun and special weapons troops, and three squadrons of three rifle troops each. The special troops remained as structured in 1928, and no observation squadron or chemical detachment found a place in the division. With the paper changes in the cavalry divisions and other minor adjustments, the strength of a wartime divisional rose to 10,680.

 

Standard organization chart for a Cavalry Division in November 1940

In order to prepare for war service, 1st Cavalry Division participated in the following maneuvers:

World War II

With the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, the “great laboratory” phase for developing and testing organizations, about which Marshall wrote in the summer of 1941, closed, but the War Department still had not developed ideal infantry, cavalry, armored, and motorized divisions. In 1942 it again revised the divisions based on experiences gained during the great GHQ maneuvers of the previous year. As in the past, the reorganizations ranged from minor adjustments to wholesale changes.

1st Cavalry Division retained its square configuration after the 1941 maneuvers, but with modifications. The division lost its antitank troop, the brigades their weapons troops, and the regiments their machine gun and special weapons troops. These changes brought no decrease in divisional firepower, but placed most weapons within the cavalry troops. The number of .50-caliber machine guns was increased almost threefold. In the reconnaissance squadron, the motorcycle and armored car troops were eliminated, leaving the squadron with one support troop and three reconnaissance troops equipped with light tanks. These changes increased the division from 11,676 to 12,112 officers and enlisted men.

The last of the 1st Cavalry Division's mounted units permanently retired their horses and converted to infantry formations on 28 February 1943. However, a mounted Special Ceremonial Unit known as the Horse Platoon – later, the Horse Cavalry Detachment – was established within the division in January 1972. Its ongoing purpose is to represent the traditions and heritage of the American horse cavalry at military ceremonies and public events.

The Division shipped out equipped as an Augmented Light Infantry Division. 1st Cavalry Division reported for its Port Call at Camp Stoneman, CA as follows:

 

1st Cavalry Division organization early World War II
1st Cavalry Division organization 1944-1945
Unit Staged Departed Arrived
HHT, 1st Cavalry Division 21 June 1943 26 June 11 July
HHT, 1st Cavalry Brigade 21 June 1943 3 July 24 July
HHT, 2nd Cavalry Brigade 18 June 1943 26 June 11 July
5th Cavalry Regiment 20 June 1943 2 July 24 July
7th Cavalry Regiment 18 June 1943 26 June 11 July
8th Cavalry Regiment 18 June 1943 26 June 11 July
12th Cavalry Regiment 20 June 1943 3 July 24 July
HHB, Division Artillery
61st Field Artillery Battalion 3 July 1943 24 July
82nd Field Artillery Battalion 4 June 1943 23 June
99th Field Artillery Battalion 23 May 1943 23 June
8th Engineer Squadron 23 May 1943 18 June
1st Medical Squadron
16th Quartermaster Squadron
7th Cavalry Recon Squadron 26 June 1943 11 July
1st Antitank Troop
1st Signal Troop


The 1st Cavalry Division arrived in Australia as shown above, continued its training at Strathpine, Queensland, until 26 July, then moved to New Guinea to stage for the Admiralties campaign 22–27 February 1944. The division experienced its first combat in the Admiralty Islands, units landing at Los Negros on 29 February 1944. Momote airstrip was secured against great odds. Attacks by fanatical Japanese were thrown back, and the enemy force surrounded by the end of March. Nearby islands were taken in April and May. The division next took part in the invasion of Leyte, 20 October 1944, captured Tacloban and the adjacent airstrip, advanced along the north coast, and secured Leyte Valley, elements landing on and securing Samar Island. Moving down Ormoc Valley (in Leyte) and across the Ormoc plain, the division reached the west coast of Leyte 1 January 1945. The division then invaded Luzon, landing in the Lingayen Gulf area 27 January 1945, and fought its way as a "flying column" to Manila by 3 February 1945. More than 3,000 civilian prisoners at the University of Santo Tomas, including more than 60 US Army nurses (some of the "Angels of Bataan and Corregidor") were liberated, and the 1st Cavalry then advanced east of Manila by the middle of February before the city was cleared. On 20 February the division was assigned the mission of seizing and securing crossings over the Marikina River and securing the Tagaytay-Antipolo Line. After being relieved 12 March in the Antipolo area, elements pushed south into Batangas and provinces of Bicol Region. They mopped up remaining pockets of resistance in these areas in small unit actions. Resistance was officially declared at an end 1 July 1945. The division left Luzon 25 August 1945 for occupation duty in Japan, arriving in Yokohama 2 September 1945 and entering Tokyo 8 September, the first United States division to enter the Japanese capital.

1st Cav soldiers during the Battle of Leyte.
  1. 734 Killed in Action
  2. 3,311 Wounded in Action
  3. 236 Died of Wounds.

Occupation duty in Japan followed for the next five years.

 

Korean War

 

In the summer of 1950, North Korea attacked South Korea, and the 1st Cavalry Division was rushed to Korea to help shore up the Pusan Perimeter. After the X Corps attack at Incheon, a breakout operation was launched at the Pusan Perimeter. The 1st Cavalry Division remained in the line until it was relieved by the 45th Infantry Division from the United States Army National Guard in January 1952. Following the relief, the division returned to Japan. The division returned to Korea in 1957, where it remained until 1965.

BUGOUT BALLAD

During the Korean War, there were disparaging rumors about the 1st Cavalry Division's fighting abilities, including a folk song of the time called "The Bug-Out Ballad". The series of engagements that are rumored to have given rise to the song were due (at least partly) to the myth that the division lost its unit colors.

 

Other Army and Marine units disparagingly described the division shoulder insignia as representing

 'The horse they never rode, the river they never crossed, and the yellow speaks for itself'.

Another version goes:

"The shield they never carried, the horse they never rode, the bridge they never crossed, the line they never held, and the yellow is the reason why."

The incident that apparently gave rise to this rumor appears to be the Battle of Unsan, which took place on November 1-2, 1950 at Unsan, Korea. In that battle, the 8th Cavalry regiment, a component of the 1st Cavalry Division, was pushed back from positions in and around the town of Unsan by superior Chinese forces. The regiment was severely battered, experienced heavy casualties, and lost a considerable amount of equipment. This was one of the first major Chinese operations in the Korean War and, like the Changjin (Chosin) Reservoir Battle of this same period, it took the United Nations Command by surprise.

On 28 October 1950, Gen. Walker relieved the 1st Cavalry Division of its security mission in P’yongyang. The division’s new orders were to pass through the ROK 1st Division’s lines at Unsan and attack toward the Yalu River. Leading the way on the twenty-ninth, the 8th Cavalry regiment departed P’yongyang and reached Yongsan-dong that evening. The 5th Cavalry regiment arrived the next morning, with the mission to protect the 8th Cavalry regiment's rear. With the arrival of the 8th Cavalry Regiment at Unsan on the 31st, the ROK 1st Division redeployed to positions northeast, east, and southeast of Unsan; the 8th Cavalry took up positions north, west, and south of the town. Meanwhile, the ROK 15th Regiment was desperately trying to hold its position east of the 8th Cavalry, across the Samt’an River.

During the afternoon of 1 November, the Chinese force’s attack north of Unsan gained strength against the ROK 15th Regiment and gradually extended to the right flank of the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry. At nightfall, the 1st Battalion controlled the northern approaches to the Samt’an River, except for portions of the ROK 15th Regiment’s zone on the east side. The battalion’s position on the left was weak; there were not enough soldiers to extend the defensive line to the main ridge leading into Unsan. This left a gap between the 1st and 2d Battalions. East of the Samt’an the ROK 15th Regiment was under heavy attack, and shortly after midnight it no longer existed as a combat force.

The ordeal of the 8th Cavalry now began. At 19:30 on 1 November, the Chinese attacked the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, all along its line. At 21:00 Chinese troops found the weak link in the ridgeline and began moving through it and down the ridge behind the 2d Battalion, penetrating its right flank and encircling its left. Now both the 1st and 2d Battalions were engaged by the enemy on several sides. Around midnight, the 8th Cavalry received orders to withdraw southward to Ipsok.

As of 01:30 on 2 November, no enemy activity was reported in the 3d Battalion’s sector south of Unsan. But as the 8th Cavalry withdrew, all three battalions became trapped by Chinese roadblocks south of Unsan during the early morning hours. Members of the 1st Battalion who were able to escape reached the Ipsok area. A head count showed the battalion had lost about 15 officers and 250 enlisted men. Members of the 2nd Battalion, for the most part, scattered into the hills. Many of them reached the ROK lines near Ipsok. Others met up with the 3nd Battalion, the hardest hit. Around 03:00, the Chinese launched a surprise attack on the battalion command post. Hand-to-hand fighting ensued for about half an hour before the enemy was driven from the area. The disorganized members of the 3rd Battalion formed a core of resistance around three tanks on the valley floor and held off the enemy until daylight. By that time, only six officers and 200 enlisted men were still able to function. More than 170 were wounded, and the number dead or missing were uncounted. Attempts by the 5th Cavalry to relieve the beleaguered battalion were unsuccessful, and the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, soon ceased to exist as an organized force.

The enemy force that brought tragedy to the 8th Cavalry at Unsan was the Chinese 116th Division. Elements of the 116th’s 347th Regiment were responsible for the roadblock south of Unsan. Also engaged in the Unsan action was the Chinese 115th Division.

  1. 3,811 killed in action
  2. 12,086 wounded in action
  1. 8 Medal of Honor recipients:
5th Cavalry Regiment: Lloyd L. Burke (28 October 1951), Samuel S. Coursen (12 December 1950), and Robert M. McGovern (30 January 1951).
8th Cavalry Regiment: Tibor Rubin (23 July 1950, to 20 April 1953), James L. Stone (21 November and 22 November 1952) Bryant E. Womack (12 March 1952) (9 October 1950) Robert H. Young
16th Reconnaissance Company: Gordon M. Craig (10 September 1950).

June 25, 1950

On 25 June, 1950, it happened before dawn in a distant country whose name means "The Land of Morning Calm". It was on a Sunday morning that began with a gentle rain. Then in a long and intensive barrage of artillery and mortar fire, 90,000 Russian -armed North Korean (N.K.) troops in seven assault infantry divisions smashed headlong into totally unprepared units of the army of the Republic of Korea (ROK). The North Korean Peoples Army (Inmun Gun) were led by over 150 T34/85 tanks, and closely supported by seventeen hundred 122mm howitzers and SU76 self-propelled 76mm guns. Over 200 Russian-supplied YAK ground-attack aircraft gave them total domination of the skies. Less than 5 years after the terrible devastations of World War II, a new war had broken out.

The ROKs had eight divisions, but only four deployed along the 38th parallel, and they only partially. Much worse, they had no air force, only 2.36 inch rocket launchers, no recoilless rifles, no heavy mortars, no medium artillery and no armor. The T34s, arguably the best tanks developed in WWII, advanced in a line-ahead formation. After scores of ROKs died under their treads, trying desperately to stop them with satchel charges and grenades, the tanks began moving through the survivors as though they were not there. At the same time, their infantry formations attacked in an inverted Y formation, sweeping around ROK opposition with the arms, encircling them, and finally crushing them.

The decision of the United States to send immediate aid to South Korea came two days after the fast moving North Korean Army broke through the Republic of Korea (ROK) defenses and sent tanks into the capital city of Sŏul.

June 30, 1950

 In addition to the US Air Force, Navy and Marines, a 1,000 man battalion from the 24th Infantry Division, including many specialists and noncommissioned officers transferred from the 1st Cavalry Division arrived 30 June. More help was on the way. "A" Company of the 71st Heavy Tank Battalion, previously assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, arrived in Korea early in July and was immediately attached to the 24th Infantry Division and experienced its first combat at Taejon.

July 6, 1950

On 06 July, General MacArthur called Major General Hobart Gay, Commanding General, 1st Cavalry Division and informed him to make plans for the 1st Cavalry Division to make an amphibious landing at Inch'ŏn. In a questionable state of readiness, the 1st Cavalry Division had been weakened by the earlier transfer of approximately 750 noncommissioned officers to the 24th and 25th Divisions to strengthen their combat capabilities in Korea.

In the early stages of establishing a defensive position of air cover, the Navy and Marine aircraft operated off carriers stationed in the Sea of Japan. However the Air Force operated at considerable disadvantage at this time, There were only two dirt airstrips in South Korea suitable for operational use by F-51 and C-47 type aircraft, K-2 at Taegu and K-3 P'ohang Airdrome (also referred to as the Pohang-dong or Yonil Air Base) at Yonil (N 35.99 E129.34), on the east coast of South Korea.

As part of an advanced party of the four US Army divisions committed to Korea, the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment was the first unit of the 1st Cavalry Division to be deployed. On 09 July, the 1st Battalion arrived on the east coast of South Korea with the mission to provide a security force for the Air Force at the Yonil Airfield, the main airport just six miles below Pohang-dong, and fire support for the ROK 23rd Regiment. As soon as it was known that the airfield was secure, the liaison and artillery observation aircraft (L4s and L5s), along with critical supporting maintenance personnel of the Air Section were self deployed from Ota, Japan and, after one refueling stop, relocated to Yonil Airfield, South Korea. Following the flight, all aircraft were given a sound maintenance check and they were prepared for a protracted period of combat operations of artillery observation, courier and mail transport and supply support.

Between 12 and 14 July, the Division loaded on ships in the Yokohama area. However, at that time, the steady enemy successes south of the Han River had changed the objective of a landing in the rear of the enemy at Inch'ŏn to a landing on the east coast of Korea at Pohangdong, a fishing village sixty miles northeast of Pusan. The date of the landing was rescheduled to 18 July. The new mission of the Division was to reinforce the faltering 24th Division. From Pohangdong the 1st Cavalry Division could move promptly to the Taejon area to provide direct support to the 24th Division.

July 18, 1950


The U.S. 1st Cavalry Division lands at P'ohang. Part of the division heads north to Yŏngdök, while the rest moves inland through guerrilla-infested mountains to Yŏngch'ŏn and Taegu.

The organization of the 1st Cavalry Division deployment followed standard amphibious practice. The landing force, commanded by Major General Hobart Gay, consisted of the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 5th Cavalry, 2nd Battalion of the 7th Cavalry, 1st and 2nd Battalions, 8th Cavalry Regiments, an artillery group of four battalions, a combat engineer battalion, special troop units, along with quartermaster support, administrative units and equipment.

These were to be moved to the Pohangdong area by a naval transport group designated as "Task Force 90". The amphibious transport group consisted of the

July 14, 1950

On 14 July, as the minesweepers started sweeping the waters of Yŏngil Man Bay - the designated landing site, the tractor group of LSTs, towing the LSUs and with two fleet tugs as escort, sailed from Tokyo Bay.

July 15, 1950

On 15 July, "Task Force 90" command ship USS Mt. McKinley, under the command of Rear Admiral J. R. Doyle and final elements of the transport convoy followed a route south along the coast of Japan, then north by the Bungo Strait. Turning westward through the Inland Sea, the force steamed past Shimonoseki and into the Korean Strait. On the way, their progress was monitored by Russian submarines. Occasionally one of the accompanying destroyers would intercept their path, driving them away for a while.

July 18, 1950

Early in the morning of 18 July, tractor and transport groups joined, and the ships moved into the Yŏngil Man Bay. Fighting had been reported only a few miles north of Pohangdong, but the ROK 3rd Division still held the road, and at 0559 hours Admiral Doyle signaled the Task Force to "Land the Landing Force in accordance with the plan for an unopposed operation."

The first video clip (L) of the 1st Cavalry Division, is a film of the amphibious beachhead landing at Pohangdong, Korea. An animated map of South Korea depicts locations of US landings on the east coast and highlights Pohangdong. As the ships of the transport group lay at anchor in Yŏngil Man Landing Ships, Tank (LSTs) and Landing Crafts head for the beach of Pohangdong. Troop landing began at 0715 hours followed by vehicle and general cargo unloading that commenced at 0930 hours.

Nine of the LSTs disgorged their cargo along the jetty wall and on the beaches of the Yŏngil Man Bay, along with the smaller landing craft. Seven were ordered out to Kuryongpo around the point to unload vehicles. Troopers disembark from landing craft. Support equipment, including bulldozers and trucks are unloaded to supply support to the Troopers, who are advancing rapidly inland.

The second film clip (R), produced by the Signal Corps, brings the highlights of the land operations of the 1st Cavalry Division in the Korean War. Although the Army on horseback, that once known as the United States Cavalry, is no more, but "cavalry" is a proud word in military terminology and no one can display that pride more than the men of the 1st Cavalry Division. They are still designated as "troopers", like their tough forbearers who, a century ago, rode against the Indian tribes of the west. Today, these soldiers of the Division (referenced as "the First Team") keep alive the legendary tradition of cavalry bravery by fighting, when they are called upon to fight, with courage and an indomitable will to win - as depicted in this film.

Lead elements of the 8th Cavalry Regiment landed soon after daylight in the early morning of 18 July, successfully carrying out the first amphibious landing of the Korean War. The 13th Signal Company quickly followed behind the last wave of the 8th Cavalry. The first troops of the 5th Cavalry Regiment came ashore at approximately 1630 hours. Only a small combat air patrol from the carrier Valley Forge was retained overhead to protect the ships and landing forces. All major ships had been emptied by midnight, while the LSTs had discharged all personnel, all vehicles, and more than half their bulk cargo. More than 10,000 troops and 2,000 vehicles, and almost 3,000 tons of cargo had been put ashore.

In the last scenes of the film, Major General Hobart R Gay, Commanding General, 1st Cavalry Division held a conference at the commanding post of the 8th Cavalry Regiment which includes Ellis Warner Williamson, Assistant Commanding General of the 25th Infantry Division and Colonel Ray D. Plummer, Commanding Officer of 8th Cavalry Regiment. Troopers, mMoving out on the operation are greeted by welcome signs that were erected by South Koreans.

July 19, 1950

The North Koreans (N.K.) were 25 miles away when elements of the 1st Cavalry Division came ashore. At noon on 19 July, General Gay assumed command ashore and the 5th Cavalry started toward Taejon. In the afternoon, with unloading completed, ships of the Attack Force shifted to heavy weather anchorages as Helene, the first typhoon of the season, was reported heading for the Korea Strait.

July 20, 1950

The next day, the 8th Cavalry followed and closed in on an assembly area east of Yongdong by evening, unaware that the strength of Typhoon Helene, which had swept the eastern coast of Korea, would prevent the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment and 82nd Field Artillery Battalion from landing until 22 July.

July 22, 1950

By the end of 22 July, all regiments were deployed in battle positions, in itself a remarkable logistical achievement in the face of the heavy typhoon that had pounded the Korean coastline.

On 22 July, the 1st Cavalry Division assumed responsibility for blocking the enemy along the main Taejon-Taegu corridor. Concurrently the 8th Cavalry relieved the 21st Infantry Regiment, 24th Division, in its position at Yŏngdong. The 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry was deployed north of Taegu, now the temporary capital of South Korea and astride the direct line of enemy advance. The 2nd Battalion was deployed to cover the road from Maju to the southwest.

July 23, 1950

The next morning the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, in front of Yongdong, reported that it had destroyed three enemy T34 tanks with 3.5-inch rocket launchers in the first use of the weapon. The enemy began to close on the 1st Cavalry Division for the battle at Yongdong. In the meantime the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry was hit by heavy artillery fire and a mortar barrage, and North Korean infantrymen swarmed toward their entrenched positions.

The 7th and 9th Regiments. N.K. 3rd Division began their attack on the Yongdong positions. They made their first penetration southwest of Yongdong, establishing a roadblock a mile and a half behind the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry. At the same time other enemy units heavily engaged the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry northwest of Yongdong in a frontal attack.

On 23 July four different attempts by three light tanks failed to dislodge the enemy behind the 2nd Battalion. As a reinforcement, the 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry, and the 16th Reconnaissance Company moved toward the cut off battalion. By noon, enemy troops were attacking the 61st and 99th Field Artillery Battalions which were supporting the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, indicating that the infiltration had been extensive.

On the other approach road, northwest of Yongdong, heavy automatic fire from quad-50's, 37-mm. fire from "A" Battery of the 92nd Antiaircraft Artillery Battalion, and artillery fire from the 77th Field Artillery Battalion helped the 1st Battalion to repel enemy attacks.

July 24, 1950

 The large numbers of Korean refugees crowding the Yongdong area undoubtedly helped the enemy infiltrate the 1st Cavalry Division positions. For example, on 24 July, a man dressed in white carrying a heavy pack and accompanied by a woman appearing to be pregnant, came under suspicion. The couple was searched and the woman's assumed pregnancy proved to be a small radio hidden under her clothes. She had used this radio for reporting American positions.

July 25, 1950

By the morning of 25 July enemy forces had infiltrated the positions of the 1st Cavalry Division so thoroughly that they were forced to withdraw. The 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry executed an orderly and efficient withdrawal, covered by the fire of the Heavy Mortar Company and the two batteries of the 77th Field Artillery Battalion. The mortar men finally lost their mortars and fought as infantry in the withdrawal.

Meanwhile, the situation worsened on the road southwest of Yongdong. The artillery support was so concentrated that shells falling close to the positions of the 1st Battalion wounded four men. Together with an attack by the battalion, the enemy roadblock briefly opened and the bulk of the battalion escaped to Yongdong with the exception of "F" Company, 8th Cavalry; the 16th Reconnaissance Company; and the 1st Platoon, "A" Company, 71st Tank Battalion, at the rear of the column that were cut off. Only four of eleven light tanks broke through the enemy positions. Crews abandoned the other seven tanks and walked over the hills as part of a group of 219 men, most of them from "F" Company.

As the space between the battalions became increasingly threatened, the 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry moved into the gap to absorb some of the pressure. Closer to Yongdong, the 2d Battalion, 5th Cavalry moved to assist the cutoff units of the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry on its right. en route, "F" Company ran into trouble. encountering an overwhelming concentration of North Korean Infantry soldiers. Only twenty-six men from the relief units managed to escape and return to friendly territory. Altogether, the 5th Cavalry Regiment suffered 275 casualties that day.

July 25, 1950

 The 7th Cavalry, initially held in the 8th Army defenses at Pohangdong, was released to the 1st Cavalry Division on 25 July, and began moving up to join the 5th Cavalry Regiment.

 During the next few days a defensive line was formed at Hwanggan with the 7th Cavalry moving east and the 5th Cavalry replacing the 25th Infantry Regiment.

The Korean War was chaotic and difficult for the artillery. Classical front lines disappeared. To make up for their own lack of artillery, the North Koreans made battery positions their prime targets. Batteries had to fight off invaders in close combat and still fire their guns in support of the combat operations. During the first few weeks, the division artillerymen were fighting with small arms alongside their thundering artillery pieces. Artillery units often found themselves surrounded and artillerymen were called upon to fight side-by-side with the infantry. One cannoneer suggested that the crossed cannons of the artillery be changed to one cannon and one rifle.

July 29, 1950

On 29 July, in order to preclude being flanked by the enemy forces moving south toward Chirye, the 1st Cavalry Division took up new defensive positions at Kumchon, an important road center 30 miles northwest of Taegu. The 5th Cavalry blocked the Kŭmsŏng-Chirye road. The 8th Cavalry went to a position astride the Sangju road north of Kumchon. The 7th Cavalry remained at its Hwanggan position until adjacent units had been withdrawn, and then it fell back to a new position on the Yongdong road about six miles northwest of Kumchon.

Following the establishment of the defensive positions, the 16th Reconnaissance Company, the lead reconnaissance unit of the 1st Cavalry Division, conducted a patrol toward and beyond Chirye. They encountered strong enemy fire. With their return route blocked by the North Koreans, the troopers moved ahead until their vehicles were knocked out, then moved on foot to friendly lines. Out of the original roster of 57 men, 44 made it safely back by crossing 35 miles of difficult mountain terrain.

JAugust 5, 1950

On 05 August, "A' Company, 71st Heavy Tank Battalion was reorganized as "A" Company, 71st Tank Battalion and reassigned to the 1st Cavalry Division.

JSeptember 1, 1950

By mid September, "A" Company had lost twenty of its original issue of twenty-two M-24 light tanks because their 75mm guns could not penetrate the armor on the Russian built T-24 tanks. After they lost their tanks in combat, there were enough survivors to form a machine-gun platoon and they spent the next thirty days on the line fighting as infantry.

JOctober 16, 1950

On 16 October, the unit was deactivated and relieved from assignment to the 1st Cavalry Division because of its heavy losses.

JJune 25, 1950

 

When the Korean War started the 70th Heavy Tank Battalion was training at the Armored School at Ft. Knox, KY. All units were placed on alert and personnel were restricted to the post. To bring the Battalion to full strength, additional equipment and personnel were brought in from Ft. Campbell, KY and the first leg of deployment for overseas was made, overland, by train to California.

July 23, 1950

On 23 July the 70th sailed from San Francisco on the transport USS General Brewster. Arriving at the scheduled port of Yokohama, Japan the transport did not dock and was directed to proceed to the Japanese port of Sasebo, where a British Destroyer escort was waiting to accompany it to Pusan, South Korea.

JAugust 7, 1950

On 07 August 1950, the 70th Tank Battalion, composed of two companies, "A" and "C" equipped with M4A3E8s, and one company, "B" equipped with M26s, arrived at the port of Pusan.

JAugust 12, 1950

On 12 August, given the role of providing logistical support and command liaison to the 1st Cavalry Division, "A" Company was attached to the 5th Cavalry Regiment, "B" Company was attached to the 8th Cavalry Regiment and "C" Company was attached to the 7th Cavalry Regiment.

Soon after the attachment of the 70th Tank Battalion, they joined the Division in the launching of a major offensive of probing and striking attacks in multiple directions in the Taegu area to break out of the Pusan Perimeter. In carrying out the probes, the 5th Cavalry Regiment, with "A" Company, captured several strategic points along the Naktong River. The 8th Cavalry Regiment, with "B" Company, halted the advance of the North Koreans west of Taegu. The 7th Cavalry Regiment, with "C" Company, launched a counterattack. Throughout its remaining campaigns in Korea, the 70th Tank Battalion remained employed as the armored support to the 1st Cavalry Division.

 


The 1st Cavalry Division was assigned to defend a 35 mile sector along the Naktong River, extending from three miles north of Waegwan, south to the area defended by the 24th Infantry Division. The rugged, mountainous terrain of Korea and the lack of developed transportation and communications systems, created significant challenges to the 8th Engineer Battalion. Most of the initial engineer work involved demolition of bridges and important facilities in an attempt to delay the North Korean advance to the south. In the Pusan Perimeter, the invasion point of the 1st Cavalry Division, the 8th Engineer Battalion not only worked on standard defensive and construction projects, but also manned the front lines when the enemy threatened to penetrate the perimeter.

JAugust 1, 1950

By 01 August, the Pussan Perimeter enclosed a roughly rectangular area approximately 100 miles in length (north to south) and approximately 50 miles wide (east to west). In the western region, the main line of resistance followed the Naktong River for some 80 miles, then cut sharply east in the southern region at the confluence of the Naktong and Nam Rivers. The northern region was steadily pushed south by the North Korean Peoples Army (NKPA) steady advances. The sea bordered the perimeter on the east and south.

Position cursor on selected function, "Click" and "Hold".

JAugust 9, 1950

On 09 August, the enemy hurled five full divisions and parts of a sixth at the Naktong defenders near Taegu. The 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry bore the brunt of this attack. The North Koreans gained some high ground - but not for long. the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry moved against them, hitting their flanks with a coordinated artillery strike by the 61st Field Artillery. At noon, the 7th Cavalry attacked with orders to continue to Hill 154, closer to the river. Hill 268 was covered with thick brush and it was difficult to maneuver. The attack was repulsed, but the next day, an air strike softened the objective and the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry pushed the remaining enemy back across the river. In seizing Hill 268, known as "Triangulation Hill", the troopers accounted for 400 enemy dead. The First Team pulled back from some of its positions and tightened its defenses.

JAugust 12, 1950

 On 12 August, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry was attacked by units from the 10th N.K. Division with the objective to gain the high ground east of Youngpo. With good artillery support from the 77th Field Artillery Battalion, the enemy was pushed back across the river.

JAugust 14, 1950

On 14 August, a second powerful punch was delivered to the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, but timely assistance from the 1st Battalion, ordered out of reserve, 8th Engineers, 16th Reconnaissance, and artillery caused the termination of the attack which had penetrated to Samuni-dong, about 12 miles from Taegu. Out of 1,700 enemy attackers, some 1,500 died.

Simultaneously, on 14 August, a second enemy attack was launched at the boundary between the 1st ROK Division and the 1st Cavalry Division at Waegwan. "G" Company, 5th Cavalry situated on Hill 303, the right flank anchor of the US Eighth Army Command, began receiving small arms fire from the ROK side of the boundary.

JAugust 15, 1950

On 15 August, "F" Company withdrew, creating a situation in which "G" Company and a supporting platoon of "H" Company motarmen were surrounded. "B" Company and a platoon of tanks tried to break through to "G" Company, but were driven back.

JAugust 16, 1950

On 16 August, another unsuccessful rescue attempt was made. Finally, during the night, "G" Company was able to elude the enemy and get off Hill 303.

JAugust 17, 1950

On 17 August, the 5th Cavalry, with support by "A" Company, 70th Tank Battalion, massed another attack on Hill 303. At 1400 hours, under the cover of a napalm and bombing attack, they were able to retake the hill. In retaking the hill, the regiment came upon a painful scene; the bodies, with hands tied in back, of "H" Company troopers who had been sprayed with machinegun fire.

The Pusan Perimeter continued to hold. With added reinforcements, Pusan became a staging ground and depot for United Nations supplies and soldiers from all around the world. Solders of the United Nations forces became First Team troopers, the gallant Greek Battalion (GEF) was attached to the 7th Cavalry Regiment and fought alongside them. The rapid buildup was an encouraging factor to an army that might possibly face another "Dunkirk". The defenders now outnumbered the attackers and they had the equipment and firepower to go on the offensive.

Meanwhile, back in the states, priority was given to a rapid build up of military manpower necessary to counter the North Korean threat. A mobilization of all available active duty and reserve Army personnel initiated a marshalling of forces at Ft. Lawton, Washington, Ft. Ord CA and Camp Stoneman, CA for rapid embarkment to Korea.

JAugust 11, 1950

On 11 August, the soldiers of the units that were destined to be redesignated the 3rd battalions of the 5th, 7th, and 8th Cavalry Regiments, 1st Cavalry Division, boarded the USS General John Pope (AP-110) at Oakland, California, and sailed out into the bay and under the Golden Gate Bridge for movement to Korea.

JAugust 25, 1950

Following a fourteen day routine of automatic weapons training, map reading, and calisthenics, they arrived in Pusan and disembarked on 25 August. The availability of these units allowed the fill out of the TO&E of the 1st Cavalry Division, which in 1949, was authorized a 3rd battalion for each of its regiments.

August 26, 1950

On 26 August, the Eight Army cut orders assigning the three new Regimental Combat Teams (RCT) to the 1st Cavalry Division.

The 3rd Battalion, 14th Infantry RCT, 10th Mountain Division, from Camp Carson, Colorado was redesignated as the 3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment,

the 2nd Battalion, 30th Infantry RCT, 3rd Division, from Ft. Benning, Georgia was redesignated as the 3rd Battalion, 7th Cavalry Regiment and


the 3rd Battalion, 7th Infantry RCT, 3rd Infantry Division, from Ft. Devens, Massachusetts was redesignated as the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry Regiment.

The next day the battalions moved out by rail to join their respective regiments in battle. By the end of August, the four US divisions in Korea had finally been built up to their authorized level of three battalions per regiment.

JAugust 29, 1950

On 29 August, the 1st Cavalry Division sector of coverage was shifted to the north and northwest mountainous areas. They took up defensive positions north of Taegu along a line eight miles long. The 5th Cavalry was positioned on the west, the 7th Cavalry was positioned in the center and the 8th Cavalry was positioned on the east. Critical terrain consisted of Hills 346, 490, and 518 in the center and Hills 188, 302, and 303 east of Waegwan and a corridor known as "The Bowling Alley" running north and south. The terrain of the corridor was flat, with irrigation ditches and rice paddies. On either side were rugged mountains. To reduce the attack options of the North Koreans around Waegwan, the dominating terrain linking Waegwan and Tabu-dong, just twelve miles north of Taegu, Hill 518 and Hill 346 would have to be reduced.

JSeptember 2, 1950

On 02 September, following artillery bombardments and air strikes, in a coordinated effort, the 7th Cavalry attacked Hill 518 and the 8th Cavalry advanced on the right flank and attacked Hill 490. Massive artillery support, four fifths of the division firepower, was used to support the advancing troopers. Elements of the 8th Cavalry had advanced northeast of Hill 490. That night an enemy regiment captured adjacent hills and began to exert pressure on an area known as the "Walled City". This was a series of high mountain ranges and huge granite boulders positioned to prevent landslides. On the highest mountain was an ancient Buddhist Shrine, the key to the defense of Taegu, which overlooked the straight corridor leading to the city - just twelve miles away.

JSeptember 4, 1950

By 04 September, Division headquarters, at Taegu, was alive with activity. Brigadier General Frank A. Allen, the Assistant Division Commander was busy organizing "Task Force Allen", including two provisional infantry battalions composed of bandsmen, technical, and miscellaneous troops. The 8th Combat Engineer Battalion was pressed into service as infantry. "D" Company was given the mission to secure the "Walled City of Kasan". The engineers fought their way to their destination and held it.

 

It was in this battle of repelling counterattacks on 04 September, that Private First Class Melvin L. Brown, "D" Company, 8th Engineer Combat Battalion, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against the enemy. While his platoon was securing Hill 755 (the Walled City), the enemy, using heavy automatic weapons and small arms, counterattacked. Taking a position on a fifty foot-high wall, Private First Class Brown delivered heavy rifle fire on the enemy. His ammunition was soon expended and although wounded, he remained at his post and threw his few grenades into the attackers causing many casualties. When his supply of grenades was exhausted his comrades from nearby foxholes tossed others to him and he left his position, braving a hail of fire, to retrieve and throw them at the enemy. The attackers continued to assault his position and Private First Class Brown, weaponless, drew his entrenching tool from his pack and calmly waited until they each peered over the wall, delivering each a crushing blow to the head. Knocking ten or twelve enemy from the wall, his daring action so inspired his platoon that they repelled the attack and held their position. For his valiant action, Private First Class Brown received the Medal of Honor.

JSeptember 5, 1950

By 05 September, it became evident that enemy pressure along the sector of the 1st Cavalry Division had increased tremendously. General Gay issued a general withdrawal of the 1st Cavalry Division in order to shorten lines and occupy better defensive positions. The withdrawal movement began on the right with the 8th Cavalry, then the 7th Cavalry in the Hill 518 area and finally the 5th Cavalry in the Waegwan area. The key to the withdrawal was Hill 464, behind the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, that dominated the Waegwan - Tabu-dong road. The mud created by the heavy rains which fell 05 to 06 September, slowed all wheeled and tracked vehicles.

JSeptember 6, 1950

On 06 September, at 0300 hours, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry disengaged from the enemy on Hill 464 and fought its way to the east. The 5th Cavalry, occupying positions on Hill 303, came under heavy fire and was driven from key terrain, however, they were able to recapture the lost ground with the aid of the 70th Tank Battalion elements. During the next few days, the situation was very tenuous. The enemy had gained major footholds east of Naktong and south to within about 8 miles of Taegu in the vicinity of Hills 314 and 570.

JSeptember 10, 1950

On 10 September, during an advance on a strategic enemy held hill near Kasan, Corporal Gordon M. Craig, 16th Reconnaissance Company and his company were subjected to intense, hostile grenade, mortar, and small-arms fire. Corporal Craig and four comrades moved forward to eliminate an enemy machine gun nest that was hampering the advance of the company. At that instance an enemy machine gunner hurled a hand grenade at the advancing men. Without hesitating or attempting to seek cover for himself, Corporal Craig threw himself on the grenade and smothered its burst with his body. His intrepid and selfless act, in which he unhesitantly gave his life for his comrades, inspired them to attack with such ferocity that they annihilated the enemy machine gun crew, enabling the company to continue its attack. For his valiant action, Corporal Gordon M. Craig received the Medal of Honor.

JSeptember 12, 1950

On 12 September, the 3rd Battalion, 7th Cavalry was assigned to retake Hill 314. Many accounts of heroism and professionalism occurred in this successful engagement. Subsequently, the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry attacked and after a hard fought battle, regained Hill 570. The North Korean drive ground to a halt on 13 September, seven miles short of Taegu. The momentum began to turn and plans were laid for an all-out offensive.

 



JSeptember 15, 1950

This second set of video clips (R) is a sewreies of scenes of the amphibious beachhead landing at Inch'ŏn, Korea - far behind the North Korean lines. at Inch'ŏn,- designated as Operation CHROMITE by MacArthur, The landing on 15 September 1950 became the turning point in this bloody battle. An animated map of South Korea depicts locations of UN Operations on the east coast at Pusan and highlights the location of the Inch'ŏn landing, near Sŏul, Korea.

An animated map shows Sŏul, Pusan, Inch'ŏn and Yellow sea. A ship approaching the labding zone and troops landing at Inch'ŏn as General MacArthur looks on. Details includes th infantry advance through the burning ruins of Sŏul, searching and taking North Korean prisoners.

In spite of the many objections given by critics of the plan, the Inch'ŏn landing was an immediate success allowing the 1st Cavalry Division to break out of the perimeter and start fighting north. The routes north were heavily mined. Rather than have the engineer battalion methodically screen and dig up the mines, 17 tanks of "A" Company, 70th Tank Battalion were sacrificed to rapidly clear the mines along the routes.

JSeptember 22, 1950

On 22 September at 0800 hours, during the massive offensive, "Task Force Lynch" moved out. Led by the 36d Battalion, 7th Cavalry and supported by "B" Company, 8th Engineers, "C" Company (M-4 tanks) and the Intelligence and Reconnaissance (I&R) Platoon of the 70th Tank Battalion, 77th Field Artillery(-), 3rd Platoon, Heavy Mortar Company and a tactical air support liaison team, executed the historic mission of "Task Force Lynch" and broke out of the Pusan Perimeter through 106.4 miles of enemy held territory to link up with the 7th Infantry Division at Osan.

JSeptember 27, 1950

On 27 September, north of Osan at a small bridge, "L" Company, 7th Cavalry, met elements of "H" Company, 31st Infantry, 7th Division. In this rapid advance to Osan, the 1st Cavalry Division cut off elements of the North Korean 105th Armored Division in the Ansŏng and P'yongt'aek area and miscellaneous units in the Taejon area. On 28 September, elements of "C" Company, 70th Tank Battalion, and "K" Company, 7th Cavalry, with the strong assistance of fighter-bombers, destroyed at least seven of ten T-34's in the P'yŏngt'aek area, five by air strikes. Elements of the 16th Reconnaissance Company barely escaped destruction by these enemy tanks, and did suffer casualties.

JSeptember 28, 1950

From 28 September to 03 October, major efforts concentrated on mopping up operations of the large sector assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division.

JOctober 4, 1950

By 04 October, the Division had resumed the offence to the north. On 05 October, the 1st Cavalry Division advanced north of Sŏul for the purpose of securing the US I Corps assembly area near the 38th Parallel. Led by "I" Company, the 5th Cavalry crossed to the north side of the Imjin River at Munsan-ni.

JOctober 7, 1950

On 07 October, the 16th Reconnaissance Company entered Kaesong, and that evening elements of the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry arrived there.

JOctober 8, 1950

By the evening of 08 October, the 7th and 8th Cavalry had secured the I Corps assembly area in the vicinity of Kaesong. Some of the troops were within small arms range of the 38th Parallel.

  

 



JOctober 9, 1950

On 09 October, the 1st Cavalry Division crossed the 38th Parallel. Moving through the area, a small group of the 8th Engineer Battalion erected a wooden sign, marking the site. Subsequent battles in the vicinity of the 38th Parallel in the spring of 1951 erased all signs of the marker. A permanent monument, commemorating the breakthrough, was constructed in 1956 on the original site. In 1999, it was moved to a government reserve because the original site was on private land. The decision to restore and relocate the memorial was made after a veteran of the Division visited it recently and reported that the monument was falling into disrepair. Since then it has been restored and moved to a more accessible site beside two South Korean monuments to the 38th Parallel crossing, alongside State Highway 3, a few miles north of the town of Tongducheon, South Korea.

On 09 October, Private First Class Robert H. Young, a trooper of "E" Company, 8th Cavalry was in deep in enemy territory. His company, spearheading a battalion drive, suddenly came under a devastating barrage of enemy mortar and automatic weapons crossfire that inflicted heavy casualties among his comrades and wounded him in the face and shoulder. Refusing to be evacuated, Private First Class Young remained in position and continued to fire at the enemy until wounded a second time. As he awaited first aid near the company command post the enemy attempted an enveloping movement. Disregarding medical treatment, he took an exposed position and firing with deadly accuracy killed five of the enemy. During this action he was again hit by hostile fire that knocked him to the ground and destroyed his helmet. Later when supporting tanks moved forward, Private First Class Young, his wounds still unattended, directed tank fire which destroyed three enemy gun positions and enabled the company to advance. Wounded again by an enemy mortar burst, and while aiding several of his injured comrades, he demanded that all others be evacuated first. Throughout the course of this action the leadership and combative instinct displayed by Private First Class Young exerted a profound influence on the conduct of the company. His aggressive example affected the whole course of the action and was responsible for its success. For his valiant action, Private First Class Robert H. Young received the Medal of Honor.

JOctober 10, 1950

On 10 October, the 89th Tank Battalion was attached to the 1st Cavalry Division to strengthen the armor support for the northern offensive. Joining with the Division, the 89th supported the drive north toward the southwestern edge of Pyongyang. On the 20th, they were relieved for assignment to the 24th Infantry Division.

JOctober 12, 1950

On 12 October, 1st Lieutenant Samuel Coursen, a member of "C" Company, 5th Cavalry, was engaged in an all out offensive of Hill 174. While "C" Company was under heavy enemy small-arms fire, the platoon of Lieutenant Coursen received enemy fire from close range. The platoon returned the fire and continued to advance. During this phase one of his men moved into a well camouflaged emplacement, which was thought to be unoccupied, and was wounded by the enemy who were hidden within the emplacement. Seeing the soldier in difficulty Lieutenant Coursen rushed to the aid the man and, without regard for his personal safety, engaged the enemy in hand-to-hand combat in an effort to protect his wounded comrade until he himself was killed. When his body was recovered after the battle seven enemy dead were found in the emplacement. As the result of 1st Lieutenant Coursen's violent struggle several of the heads of the enemy had been crushed with his rifle. His aggressive and intrepid actions saved the life of the wounded man, eliminated the main position of the enemy roadblock, and greatly inspired the men in his command. For his valiant action, 1st Lieutenant Samuel Coursen received the Medal of Honor.

October 13, 1950

On 13 October the 1st Cavalry Division began to close in on one of the main arsenals of the NVA, the Kumchon Pocket, an enemy strongpoint heavily defended with tanks, self propelled guns, and anti aircraft guns. With the 7th Cavalry blocking the Hanpo-ri bridge on the road north of Kumchon, the decisive action now rested with the 5th and 8th Cavalry, which were trying to compress the pocket from the south and the east. Moving west from the Sibyon-ni road, the 5th Cavalry encountered an almost continuous mine field in its approach to Kumchon, and it also had to fight and disperse an enemy force of over 300 N.K. soldiers. Overcoming these difficulties, the 5th Cavalry pressed ahead and by the evening, it was approaching Kumchon.

Strong opposition confronted the 8th Cavalry moving north on the main highway where the enemy apparently had concentrated most of his available forces and weapons. There, on the morning of the 13th, an artillery preparation employing proximity fuse air bursts blanketed the North Korean positions. While the enemy force south of Kumchon fought desperately and successfully to prevent the 8th Cavalry from closing in on the town from the south, a large enemy column of trucks with an estimated 1,000 soldiers moved northward out of Kumchon toward Namchonjom. At the Hanpo-ri bridge they ran directly into the 7th Cavalry roadblock. In the ensuing action, the 7th Cavalry, aided by air strikes, killed over 500 and captured 201 of this force.

At midnight of the 13th, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry, resumed its attack on Kumchon from the east. After dispersing an enemy force near the edge of town, the battalion then entered and seized the northern part of it. The 3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry following, seized the southern sector of Kumchon.

October 14, 1950

Advancing northwest, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry joined elements of the 7th Cavalry above Hanpo-ri at noon on the 14th. An enemy force, of some 2,400 men, which had been stopped by the 7th Cavalry roadblock at Hanpo-ri, escaped into the hills as the 2nd Battalion approached from the south. Meanwhile, attacking south from Kumchon, the 3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry neared a special task force of the 8th Cavalry Regiment which had attacked north during the morning and already had lost two tanks to enemy action. The two columns, the 3rd Battalion, 5th Cavalry, and the special 8th Cavalry task force met just after noon about four miles south of Kumchon.

By the close of 14 October, the day Kumchon fell to the 1st Cavalry Division, the enemy positions between the 38th Parallel and the North Korean capital of Pyongyang, and enemy front lines as such had ceased to exist. The N.K. forces were in a state of utter confusion.

Political and military leaders in the US really did not believe that China would send troops to Korea. Taking advantage of this skepticism, the Chinese military commanders stepped up preparations to secretly deploy some 300,000 soldiers through Manchuria and across the Yalu River bordering North Korea. Guides from the Democratic Republic aided their entry into the country, and the Korean masses helped hide the Chinese soldiers from the watchful eyes of the US. Even authors have had to admit that the ferrying of the Chinese People's Volunteers into Korea was one of the greatest strategic deceptions in military history.

 


On 14 October, the Korean War took a grim new turn when the first element of the Chinese Communist Forces (CCF), the 334th Regiment, 119th Division, of the 15th Chinese Field Army crossed the Yalu at Andong. By moving only at night, they were able to penetrate the area and move undetected into North Korea in great numbers. Only scout units moved during daylight to determine routes for the next night's march. They were ordered, under penalty of death, to freeze motionless if they heard aircraft. Their only heavy weapons were mortars, but they came in increasingly vast numbers.

Trained and battle hardened in guerilla warfare, the CCF carried none of the baggage of a modern army. Masters of concealment, they moved and fought best by night. They wore thick, padded, green or white uniforms, caps with a red star, and carried a personal weapon, grenades, 80 rounds of ammunition, a few stick grenades, spare foot rags, a sewing kit, and a week's rations of fish, rice and tea.

October 15, 1950

On 15 October, after moderate resistance from enemy positions, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry and "C" Company, 70th Tank Battalion secured the city of Namchonjam.

October 17, 1950

On 17 October, they made a flanking movement to the right of the main highway to Pyongyang. As the 7th advanced toward Pyongyang, they were stopped by strong enemy resistance near the town of Hukkyo-ri. General Gay ordered a flanking movement, but when he realized that the troopers were fatigued from constant movement, he ordered the 5th Cavalry to bypass the roadblocks and go forward to Pyongyang.

October 19, 1950

On 19 October at 1100 hours, the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry reached the southwestern edge of Pyongyang, the capital city of North Korea, at the same time that the ROK 1st Division came in from the east. This event marked the third "First" for the Division -

October 19, 1950

October 25, 1950

On 25 October 1950, serious fighting began with the engagement of the ROK 6th Division. The sudden intervention of Communist Chinese Forces (CCF) dashed hopes of a quick end to the war. In spite of urgent reports that the Chinese were preparing to enter the battle in force, MacArthur and other high commanders remained convinced that these new troops were Chinese volunteers of Korean descent, numbering no more than 30,000, who had joined North Koreans as replacements.

October 19, 1950

On 28 October 1950, orders came from I Corps to saddle up the rest of the Division and move north. The Korean war seemed to be nearing a conclusion. The North Korean forces were being squeezed into a shrinking perimeter along the Yalu and the borders of Red China and Manchuria. By now, more than 135,000 Red troops had been captured and the North Korean Army was nearly destroyed.

October 29, 1950

 By 29 October, the 8th Cavalry Regiment along with its supporting units consisting of "HHB", 1st Cavalry Division Artillery, 99th FA Battalion, "C" Battery, 999th Armored FA Battalion, "A" Co, 2nd Engineer Combat Battalion, Medical Detachment, 8th Engineer Combat Battalion,"C" Company, 8th Engineer Combat Battalion, 2nd Chemical Mortar Battalion, elements of the 95th Chemical Service Co, 13th Signal Company, 15th Infantry, 17th Infantry, 29th Infantry, 17th Ordnance Maintenance Company, 519th Military Police Battalion, 114th Graves Registration Company, and "B" Company, 70th Tank Battalion had advanced north from Pyongyang to Sukchon, Sinanju and to the vicinity of Unsan, with the mission of relieving ROK elements of the I Corps in the area. Later that day, the 8th Cavalry received orders to extend the attack all the way to the Yalu River.

October 30, 1950

 On the morning of 30 October, the 5th Cavalry Regiment, under the command of Lt. Col. Harold K. Johnson, arrived at Yongsan-dong. The mission of the 5th Cavalry was to protect the rear of the 8th Cavalry, which had continued on north to Unsan where it was to relieve part of the ROK 1st Division. The 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry, under the command of Maj. John Millikin, Jr., arrived at Unsan that afternoon. In conferring with the United States Army Advisory Group, Korea (KMAG) officers attached to the ROK 12th Regiment, Millikin and his company commanders learned that the ROK line, about 8,000 yards north of Unsan, was under attack and being pushed back.

October 31, 1950

On 31 October, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions, 8th Cavalry, relieved the ROK 12th Regiment. But on the right an enemy attack during the night had driven back the ROK 2nd Battalion more than a mile. Its commander wanted his troops to regain the lost ground before they were relieved. Millikin's 1st Battalion, however, moved into a defensive position behind the ROK 2nd Battalion line north of Unsan. That afternoon, General Milburn, US I Corps commander, visited the 8th Cavalry regimental command post and was advised that everything was all right.

 


November 1, 1950

By 01 November, the three battalions of the 8th Cavalry and its supporting units consisting of the 99th Field Artillery, "A" Company, 2nd Engineer Combat Battalion, "B" Company, 70th Tank Battalion, Medical Detachment and "C" Company, 8th Engineer Combat Battalion, elements of the 95th Chemical Services Company, 17th Ordnance Maintenance Company, 114th Graves Registration Company, 519 Military Police Company and the 13th Signal Company had advanced to within 50 miles of the Chinese border to relieve portions of the ROK 1st Division.

The arrival of the 8th Cavalry Regiment at Unsan had set in motion a redeployment of the ROK 1st Division. Upon being relieved west of Unsan, the ROK 11th Regiment had shifted southeast to establish contact with the ROK 8th Division on the Corps boundary. The ROK 12th Regiment moved to a rest and reserve assembly area at Ipsok south of the Kuryong River, six air miles from Unsan. Still engaged in the battle at Unsan, the ROK 15th Regiment was desperately trying to hold its position across the Samt'an River east of the 8th Cavalry Regiment. In short, the 8th Cavalry was to the north, west and south of Unsan; the ROK 1st Division to the northeast, east, and southeast of it.

 


Later in the morning of 01 November, patrols from the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 8th Cavalry, clashed with soldiers clearly identified as Red Chinese. Contact with the Chinese had begun increasing that afternoon, starting in the sector of the 1st Battalion, north of Unsan, then spreading west into the sector covered by the 2nd Battalion. By 1200 hours 01 November, the Chinese had cut and blocked the main road six air miles south of Unsan with sufficient strength to turn back two rifle companies which had been strongly supported by air strikes during daylight hours. The CCF had set the stage for an attack that night against the 8th Cavalry Regiment and the ROK 15th Regiment. In the afternoon of 01 November, the CCF attack north of Unsan had gained strength against the ROK 15th Regiment on the east, and gradually it extended west into the zone of the 8th Cavalry Regiment. At 1700 hours, the first probing attacks, accompanied by mortar barrages, came against their right flank units, "A" and "B" Companies, 1st Battalion. There was also something new in the enemy fire, support-rockets fired from trucks.

When dusk fell that evening enemy soldiers were on three sides of the 8th Cavalry - the north, west, and south. Only the ground to the east, held by the ROK 15th Regiment, was not in Chinese possession. At 2330 hours, the CCF launched an all out attack on the positions of the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry. As the battle grew, the attack of the CCF, well planned and executed in strength, broke through the ROK 15th Regiment. Following the issue of warning alerts of an impending withdrawal and armed with the most recent intelligence data, Colonel Holmes, Chief of Staff, 1st Cavalry Division, issued a final order for the 8th Cavalry Regiment to withdraw at 2400 hours.

November 2, 1950

Soon afterwards, at about 0100 hours 02 November, the CCF cut the withdrawal route of the 1st and 2nd Battalions.

The 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry had expended its basic ammunition as well as the reserve which had been sent down from the Regiment. "A" Company had engaged in "hand-to-hand" combat on both flanks. The 1st Battalion Commanding Officer, Major Millikin requested additional issues of ammunition. Receiving the division withdrawal order at midnight, with the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 8th Cavalry in heavy contact, the Regimental Commander, Colonel Palmer ordered a withdrawal to the south. The plan was for the 3rd Battalion to cover the withdrawal. Meanwhile, the 5th Cavalry, along with "A" Company, 70th Tank Battalion was ordered north to cover the planned withdrawal of the 8th Cavalry. In addition, the 7th Cavalry was called from Chinnampo to assist in the withdrawal.

The entire rear areas were swarming with the CCF. With heavy close-in fighting, the convoys of the 8th Cavalry Regimental Command Post (RCP) along with the 1st and 2nd Battalions managed withdraw under fire and to break through the CCF lines. Mostly, the men withdrew in scattered groups or as individuals. Many of the groups were lost as well as critical equipment needed to support the withdrawal.

November 2, 1950

By 0200 hours, 02 November, the Chinese had blocked the last remaining road for a possible retreat overland. South of Unsan, the 3rd Battalion, commanded by Major Ormond, had dug in just north of the Nammyon River. By dawn, the entire 3rd Battalion was completely surrounded. The bulk of the 3rd Battalion was trapped by the Chinese. They formed into two islands of resistance. All day long fighter aircraft and bombers pounded the enemy positions. The battalion took heavy losses in its officers and enlisted men. The Commanding Officer, Major Ormond, was badly wounded and the staff were all wounded or missing in action.

The troopers used the daylight respite gained from the air cover to dig an elaborate series of trenches and retrieve rations and ammunition from the vehicles that had escaped destruction. An L-5 plane flew over and dropped a mail bag of morphine and bandages. At dusk, a helicopter also appeared and hovered momentarily a few feet above the 3rd Battalion, intending to land and evacuate the more seriously wounded, but enemy fire hit it and it departed without landing. The battalion group was able to communicate with the pilot of a Mosquito plane overhead who said a relief column was on its way

The 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 5th Cavalry attempted a break through from the south, but the CCF on "Eagle Hill" could not be dislodged from their defensive positions. The 5th Cavalry, after receiving more than 350 casualties, pulled back.

Just after dark, a plane dropped a message to the 3rd Battalion with orders that they are to begin an orderly withdrawal. The withdrawal route indicated was the only one possible, east from the road fork south of Unsan, across the Kuryong River, and then by the main supply route of the ROK 1st Division to Ipsok and Yongbyon. Major Millikin, 1st Battalion Commanding Officer, telephoned Colonel William Walton, 2nd Battalion Commanding Officer, that he would try to hold Unsan until the 2nd Battalion cleared the road junction south of it. Then he would withdraw. The 3rd Battalion, south of Unsan, was to bring up the regimental rear.

After examining all the options, the remaining men of the 3rd Battalion decided to stand and fight even though they faced a full division of the CCF. The night brought a heavy bombardment of 120mm mortar fire and a mass attack by the CCF. Over a thousand enemy died outside the perimeter. With their own ammunition nearly spent, during the lull that followed, the men searched the battlefield around the perimeter to retrieve weapons and ammunition from the enemy dead.

November 3, 1950

On the morning of 03 November a three man patrol went to the former battalion command post dugout and discovered that during the night the Chinese had taken out some of the wounded. That day there was no air support. Remaining rations were given to the wounded. Enemy fire kept everyone under cover. The night of 03 November was a repetition of the preceding one, another barrage followed by a mass attack, with the Chinese working closer all the time. With their own ammunition almost gone, after each enemy attack had been driven back, the men would crawl out and retrieve weapons and ammunition from the enemy dead.

November 4, 1950

The morning of 04 November disclosed that there were about 200 men left able to fight. Casualties had risen to about 250 men. A discussion of the situation brought the decision that those still physically able to make the attempt should try to escape. The remaining forces of the battalion broke up into small groups and withdrew in an attempt to escape under the cover of darkness. Some were successful and many were not. Most of those men were either killed or captured that day, apparently in the vicinity of Yongbyon.

November 5, 1950

On 05 November, the Eighth Army announced that "as a result of an ambush" the 1st Cavalry Division would receive all the new replacements until further notice. In the next twelve days, The Eighth Army assigned 22 officers and 616 enlisted men as replacements to the 1st Cavalry Division. Nearly all of them went to the 8th Cavalry Regiment.

This event would be the most painful chapter in the proud history of the 1st Cavalry Division.

November 6, 1950

At approximately 1600 hours on the afternoon of 06 November, the action of the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, as an organized force came to an end. It died gallantly. At first, more than 1,000 men of the 8th Cavalry Regiment were missing in action, but as the days passed, some of them returned to friendly lines along the Ch'ongch'on. Eventually the estimate was revised to a count of more than 600 officers and men that were lost at Unsan, most of them from the 3rd Battalion.

The heroic 3rd Battalion commander, Major Ormond, was among the wounded captured by the CCF in the perimeter beside the Kuryong. He subsequently died of his wounds and, according to some reports of surviving prisoners, was buried beside the road about five miles north of Unsan. Of his immediate staff, the battalion S-2 and S-4 also lost their lives in the Unsan action. About ten officers and somewhat less than 200 enlisted men of the 3rd Battalion escaped to rejoin the regiment. There were a few others who escaped later, some from captivity, and were given the status of recovered allied personnel.

Two weeks after the Unsan action, tank patrols were still bringing in men wounded at Unsan and fortunate enough to have been sheltered and cared for by friendly Koreans.

November 22, 1950

 On 22 November, the Chinese themselves, in a propaganda move, turned free 27 men who had been prisoners for two weeks or longer, 19 of them captured from the 8th Cavalry Regiment at Unsan.

For its actions, the 3rd Battalion was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation, comparable to the Medal of Honor given individuals for Valor above and beyond the Call of Duty, along with the Republic of Korean Presidential Unit Citation and the Chryssoun Aristion Andrias {Gold Bravery Medal of Greece}

In order to execute their battle plan, the Chinese and the nearly beaten North Korean forces had a trio of powerful allies located half way around the world. Three Britons, two working in the British Embassy in Washington, DC and a third heading the American Department in London, were Soviet agents. The three spies; H.A.R. "Kim" Philby, Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean, had access to communications between MacArthur and the Pentagon because Great Britain had sent its Commonwealth Brigade to be part of the UN military forces in Korea. Copies of communications relative to military planning of UN military organizations were sent directly to Moscow and relayed to Peking.

A massive confrontation with the Chinese seemed inevitable. But the Chinese did the unexpected; they drew back into the frozen hills from which they had suddenly materialized.

November 24, 1950

On 24 November, General MacArthur launched a counterattack of 100,000 UN troops. Taking a chance, General MacArthur believed it was necessary to push the Chinese back across the border.

November 25, 1950

On 25 November, the 1st Cavalry Division moved up to the Taedong River, positioning itself behind the front lines.

November 26, 1950

On 26/27 November, the enemy shook off heavy casualties and threw great waves of troops at two battle-weary ROK divisions. The ROK II Corps folded quickly, leaving the First Team astride the Chinese penetration. The 5th Cavalry was ordered to move south from Kunu-ri and join the division defenses at Sinchang-ni. On 28 November, The lead element - the I&R platoon, was ambushed and lost all but three of its troopers. Two battalions of the 5th Cavalry attacked the roadblock and cleared a passage for the remainder of the Regiment.

November 29, 1950

On 29 November, the 7th Cavalry fell back to Sinchang-ni, where at about midnight, the Chinese launched a strong attack. Although they were repulsed in a counter attack, they were able to infiltrate with a small unit that attacked the battalion command post before being dispersed. The counterattack gave the UN time to set up new defensive lines and begin an orderly withdrawal from North Korea.

December 15, 1950

On 15 December, the 1st Cavalry Division moved northeast of Sŏul to the vicinity of Uijong-bu and assumed a defensive position. By 28 December, the true extent of the enemy buildup had become clear. At least 20 Red Chinese divisions were poised for a drive on Sŏul. Now there were almost a million and a half Chinese and North Korean troops on the Korean peninsula. The UN Command had less than 250,000 seasoned soldiers to repulse this juggernaut.

January 1, 1951

 

When the new year of 1951 began, the First Team defenders readied their weapons, shored up their defenses, and waited in the bitter cold. This time there was no surprise when the Chinese artillery began pounding the UN lines in the first few minutes of 1951. The units forward of the 38th Parallel were hit by the Chinese crossing the frozen Imjin River. Ignoring heavy losses, the Chinese crawled through mine fields and barbed wire. The UN Forces abandoned Sŏul and fell back to the Han River. The Chinese drive lost its momentum when it crossed the Han and a lull fell over the front.

During this pause, one of the most remarkable turnarounds in military history began to take shape. Lieutenant General Matthew B. Ridgway had been put in command of UN Ground Forces, replacing General Walton Walker who had died 23 December when his jeep collided with a South Korean truck. General Ridgway, arriving amid the chaos, immediately went to work restoring order and confidence among the officers and men of the Eighth army. He ordered a change in tactics. The UN Forces would now fight a "war of maneuver", with more emphasis on inflicting enemy casualties and capitalizing on their inability to carry enough supplies to sustain drives longer than a week.

January 22, 1951

On 22 January 1951, the First Team, joined by the revitalized 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry rebounding from its tragedy at Unsan, moved back into action. The movement, designated as "Task Force Johnson" began as a reconnaissance in force. Its mission was to assess the enemy situation in the area, disrupt enemy attack preparations, and destroy maximum enemy personnel and material. Elements comprising "Task Force Johnson" were the Headquarters Command Group, 3rd Battalion, 1st Platoon, "C" Company, 3rd Platoon, Heavy Mortar Company of the 8th Cavalry, Medical Company of the 8th Engineer Battalion, "C" Battery of the 99th Field Artillery, "A", and "B" Companies and the Reconnaissance Platoon of the 70th Tank Battalion. "B" Company, 70th Tank Battalion had been partially restaffed by tankers from the deactivated "A" Company of the 71st Tank Battalion. In addition the force was assisted by organic aircraft from the Division and a flight of tactical air support aircraft.

In the IX Corps sector, along route 17 towards Kyong-ni, the 1st Cavalry Division attacked with the 8th Cavalry on the left and the 7th Cavalry, with the Greek Battalion on the right. Just past the first control Line "A", the Greek Battalion on Hill 381 was counterattacked by a large enemy force. The battle began before dawn and raged on for the rest of the day. By afternoon, the Chinese had enough and retreated leaving 800 dead and a proud battalion of United Nations Command (UNC) soldiers.

In the western sector, the 8th Cavalry had met with resistance and forward progress was slowed. The 5th Cavalry was ordered to go around the 8th and seize Hill 312. It was taken in a desperate hand to hand combat between the troopers of the 1st Battalion, 5th Cavalry and the strongly dug in Chinese. For a time, the outcome hung in the balance, then the third platoon, "A" Company came charging up the hill with fixed bayonets. The enemy positions were overwhelmed and, although small hand to hand engagements continued for a while, the hill belonged to the 5th Cavalry.

January 30, 1951

 On 30 January, during the hard fight for Hill 312. 1st Lieutenant Robert M. McGovern led his platoon of "A" Company up the reverse slope and as his unit got near the enemy on the crest of the hill, they came under heavy machine gun and rifle fire from the crest of the hill, approximately seventy-five yards distant. Despite a wound sustained in this initial burst of withering fire, 1st Lieutenant McGovern, assured the men of his ability to continue on and urged them forward. Forging up the rocky incline, he fearlessly led the platoon to within several yards of its objective when the ruthless foe threw and rolled a vicious barrage of hand grenades on the group and halted the advance. Enemy fire increased in volume and intensity and 1st Lieutenant McGovern, realizing that casualties were rapidly increasing and the morale of his men was badly shaken, hurled back several grenades before they exploded. Then, disregarding his painful wounds and weakened condition, he charged a machine gun emplacement which was raking his position with flanking fire. When he was within ten yards of the position a burst of fire ripped the carbine from his hands, but, undaunted, he continued his lone-man assault and, firing his pistol and throwing grenades, killed seven hostile soldiers before falling mortally wounded in front of the gun he had silenced. The incredible display of valor by 1st Lieutenant McGovern imbued his men with indomitable resolution to avenge his death. Fixing bayonets and throwing grenades, they charged with such ferocity that hostile positions were overrun and the enemy routed from the hill. For his valiant action, 1st Lieutenant Robert M. McGovern received the Medal of Honor.

 

 


In the counterattack, the Eighth Army moved slowly and methodically, ridge by ridge, phase line by phase line, wiping out each pocket of resistance before moving farther north. The advance covered 2 miles a day, despite heavy blinding snowstorms and sub-zero temperatures.

February 12, 1951

 By 12 February, the 5th Cavalry reached Line "E" and was relieved by the 28th British Brigade and sent to Yŏju. The 7th Cavalry was not as fortunate.

February 14, 1951

On 14 February, heavy fighting erupted around an objective known as Hill 578, which was finally taken by the 7th Cavalry after overcoming stiff Chinese resistance. During this action General MacArthur paid a welcome visit to the First Team. Not far away, at the town of Chipyong-ni, the 23rd Regimental Combat Team and a French Army Battalion were surrounded by five Chinese divisions. In desperate fighting, the two units killed thousands of Chinese but were unable to break out.

Hearing of their situation. the 5th Cavalry formed a rescue force, called "Task Force Crombez" to counterattack along a road running from Yŏju to Chipyong-ni via Koksu-ri, a distance of 15 miles. The troopers had painted tiger stripes on their armored tanks to give them a psychological advantage. The sight of the tiger-striped M-4A3 and M-46 tanks sent many of the Chinese running from their entrenched positions. As the fleeing Chinese raced through open ground, they were cut down by heavy fire from the tanks and escorting troopers of "L" Company, who had taken heavy casualties in their mission of tank protection enroute to Chipyong-ni. On 15 February, Task Force Crombez broke through the perimeter of Chipyong-ni ending the standoff. The victory at Chipyong-ni marked the first time in the Korean War that the Chinese had been dealt a major defeat.

The 1st Cavalry Division slowly advanced though snow and later, when it became warm, through torrential rains. The Chinese Army was slowly but firmly, being pushed back.

March 14, 1951

On 14 March, the 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry had crossed the Hangchon River. The Division, along with the 1st Marine Division conducted a double envelopment to capture the town of Hongchon. On the 15th, Sŏul was recaptured by elements of the Eighth Army. New objectives were established to keep the Chinese from rebuilding and resupplying their forces and to advance to Line "Kansas", which roughly followed the 38th Parallel and the winding Imjin River.

April 9, 1951

By 09 April, the 1st Cavalry Division was approaching the Line "Kansas" with the Hwachon Reservoir on its eastern flank. There was some apprehension that the enemy would open the gates and flood the Pukhan River destroying all bridges that crossed the river and bring havoc to X Corps. The dam was on the northwest side of the reservoir in a rather inaccessible location from a southern approach. The 7th Cavalry was ordered to capture the dam which would eliminate the possibility of enemy destruction. The approaches to the dam severely restricted vehicular movement and the artillery could not be brought into range to support an attack. In an alternate approach, the 4th Ranger Company, attached to the 7th Cavalry, was to cross the reservoir by boat and attack from the east as the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry attacked from the southwest. The Americans made three separate assaults on the defenders, but none was successful in evicting them. Before another attempt could be organized, the troopers were pulled out for another fight. On 17 April, ROK marines crossed the reservoir and found that the Chinese had abandoned the dam and left it undefended.

April 22, 1951

On 22 April, 21 Chinese and 9 North Korean divisions slammed into Line "Kansas". Their main objective was to recapture Sŏul. At the beginning of the Communist attack, the balance of the 1st Cavalry Division remained in reserve until the complete collapse of the ROK Division in the IX Corps sector had left the Sŏul-Chunchon axis open to the enemy. The 1st Cavalry Division joined in the defense line and the bitter battle to keep the Reds out of the South Korean Capital. On 25 April, elements of the 5th Cavalry, with "A" Company, 70th Tank Battalion, closed in on the Kapyong area to relieve the hard pressed 27th British Commonwealth Brigade. On 28 April, the Division occupied Line Golden, north of Soul astride the main highways from Uijong-bu and Munsan-ni. With adequate reserves, fortified positions, and a narrower front that allowed concentration of artillery fire, I Corps was in the strongest position that it occupied since the beginning of the offensive.

Stopped at Sŏul on 15 May, the Chinese shifted three armies to the east and assisted by rain and fog, attempted a go around maneuver in the dark and attacked the center UNC forces. The 8th Army pushed them back to Line "Kansas". Later the First Team moved deeper into North Korea to distract the enemy from its central offensive, reaching the towns of Yonchon and Chorwon, at the base of the Chinese central supply base of the "Iron Triangle".

After a week of hard fighting, the line was stabilized and X Corps assumed the offensive which gave the 1st Cavalry Division the opportunity to resume its movement north towards Sochon-ni just north of the 38th parallel. On 24 May, the Division crossed the Line "Topeka" and two days later reached Sochon-ni which was located on Line "Kansas". Patrol bases established north of Line "Kansas" marked the third time that the First Team crossed the 38th parallel.

June was a period in which each regiment established battalion sized patrol bases which was a new tactic designed especially for the terrain and battle conditions of Korea. Such bases had a supporting element and, by utilizing perimeter defenses, they could not be easily overrun. The bases were situated on prominent terrain features and utilized this height advantage to inflict a terrible toll on the enemy who employed "human wave" tactics. Improving on the defenses of Line "Kansas", a new Line "Wyoming" was established approximately 35 miles north of Line "Kansas".

By 01 August, following a "reserve" status of 10 days, all regiments were on Line "Wyoming" and resumed their patrolling from bases established along the outpost line of resistance. In mid August, the 5th and 7th Cavalry sustained determined enemy attacks on their bases. The 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, in one of the largest offensives of this period, led an attack on Hill 272 and after the third attempt, seized the objective.

The patrols continued into the early days of September when the base of "K" Company, 5th Cavalry was attacked by two Chinese regiments. "K" Company, at the time, was composed of a majority of replacements, many of whom had never participated in all out combat. By morning, the company had used up four basic loads of ammunition and the situation became critical. A jeep, loaded with ammunition, receiving enemy fire all the way, drove over the heavily mined, four miles of road, from the Minimum Line of Resistance (MLR) to the perimeter of "K" Company.

On the nights of 21 and 23 September, the 2nd and 3rd Battalions, 7th Cavalry repulsed waves of Red Chinese with hand to hand fighting. But harder work followed when Operation COMMANDO, a mission to push the Chinese out of their winter defense positions south of the Yokkok River, was launched. The objective, the existing Chinese main line of resistance, was designated Line "Jamestown".

To carry out the I Corps broad advance against the entrenched 42nd, 47th, 64th and 65th Chinese Armies, five divisions were used in the execution of Operation COMMANDO. On the western flank, the ROK 1st Division was to leave Line "Wyoming", cross the Imjin River and move to Kaesong. On the eastern flank the British Commonwealth Brigade was would take the high ground between Samich'on and Kyeho-dong. Still farther east, the 1st Cavalry Division, was to move northeast on an 8 mile front between Kyeho-dong and Kamgol. On the right flank, the 3rd Division was to advance and capture Hills 281, 324, and 373 northwest of Choron to join the 25th Division to take the terrain northeast of Chorwon where the Hantan and Namdae Rivers came together.

On 03 October, the day that Operation COMMANDO was to begin, the main line of enemy resistance was directly in front of the 1st Cavalry Division. Elements of the 139th and 141st Divisions of the CCF 47th Army facing the 1st Cavalry Division had constructed defenses similar to those encountered on Heartbreak Ridge - strong bunkers supporting each other with automatic weapons fire with heavy concentration of artillery and mortars interdicting the approach routes to the hills and ridges. Barbed wire aprons and mines guarded the trenches and bunkers which were well stocked with ammunition.

Task Force MAC, consisting of the 70th Tank Battalion and the 16th Reconnaissance Company, on the left flank of the 1st Cavalry Division had the mission of advancing along the east bank of the Imjin toward Kyeho-dong and move west with the British Commonwealth Brigade, protecting the left flank of the 5th Cavalry Regiment. The 5th and 7th Cavalry were to attack abreast across the division front. The 8th Cavalry was to remain in reserve. All of the artillery units of the division were to participate in the attack. The 61st and 82nd Field Artillery supported the 5th Cavalry and the 77th and 99th Field Artillery supported the 7th Cavalry. Additional artillery units, the 936th, "A" Battery of the 17th and "A" and "B" Batteries of the 204th, were assigned from I Corps and positioned along the main line of resistance, 4 to 6 miles from Line "Jamestown".

An hour before the attack was launched, a heavy barrage of artillery fire began to soften the enemy positions. Then at 0600 hours, the five divisions moved out. The reaction of the enemy in front of the 1st Cavalry Division was immediate and violent. Task Force MAC, on the left, encountered heavy mine field concentrations coupled with strong artillery and mortar fire. The 5th Cavalry assaulted the four immediate objectives, Hills 222, 272, 287 and 346. The Chinese refused to give any ground, directing artillery fire at the three battalions of the 5th as they pushed up the hills. Six attempts by the 3rd Battalion won a foothold on Hill 272, but enemy pressure forced a withdrawal later in the day. The 3rd Battalion could only get a lasting success against Hill 222. After a frontal attack, the Chinese abandoned the hill and fell back to the north.

The situation of the 7th Cavalry was similar. Attacking with the Greek, 2nd and 3rd Battalions abreast, they stormed Hills 313 and 418 along the ridge. Both, the Greek and 2nd Battalion fought their way to the ridge line, but suffering heavy casualties, neither could hold the ground. Despite heavy fighting on 4 October, there was little forward progress. Elements of the 8th Cavalry reinforced the 7th Cavalry on the right and assaulted the ridges west of Hill 418, but the enemy clung tenaciously to its positions. During the day, elements of the CCF 140th Division moved up to reinforce the CCF 139th Division which had been hit hard by the constant battering of the 1st Cavalry Division. The 1st Cavalry Division, now had to contend with the bulk of the elite CCF 47th Army.

The first crack in the Chinese defense came on 05 October, when the 1st Battalion, 8th Cavalry discovered that, during the night, the enemy had withdrawn the majority of their forces from Hill 418 which was the anchor for Line "Jamestown". By afternoon, the 1st Battalion had cleared the ridge 1,400 yards to the northeast. The 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry then moved up the ridge southwest of Hill 418 and occupied Hill 313 without opposition.

On the following day, 06 October, the 2nd Battalion, 8th Cavalry launched an attack on Hill 334, and after two attempts, seized the objective. Heavy enemy resistance, during the day and later at night, was beaten down. At Hill 287, over 4,000 yards southwest of Hill 334, the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry, fought its way to the crest and held on to part of the hill at nightfall. The enemy prisoners taken indicated that the many of the enemy units were decimated in the opening days of the battle and was falling back to prepared defense lines to the northwest.

On 07 October, the 7th Cavalry completed the seizure of Hill 287 and sent the 3rd Battalion forward two miles southwest to take Hill 347. Attacking from the south, the 3rd Battalion began to clear the hill at the end of the day. The fall of Hill 347 meant that the 1st Cavalry Division now dominated the high ground comprising Line "Jamestown" and the northeastern half of the divisional sector.

The breach of the northeast had little immediate effect on the Chinese defense of the terrain directly across from the 5th Cavalry. After eight days of intense pressure against Hills 230, 272 and 346, the Chinese still refused to give any ground, but the punishment they had absorbed and the drain of manpower and ammunition stocks were beginning to show. On the night of 14 October, the Chinese abandoned Hill 272 allowing the 8th Cavalry take possession without contact. The control of Hill 272 opened the eastern approach to the key hill of the remaining defense line - Hill 346.

 


On 15 October, a new Operational plan. called POLECHARGE, was put in effect. The 5th Cavalry was reinforced with the Belgian Battalion from the US 3rd Division and given the mission of taking Hill 346, and then push on to Line "Jamestown" with the support of the 8th Cavalry. On 16 October at 0300 hours, the planned assault got underway, but the heavy fire power of the enemy stopped the advance of the 5th Cavalry. The 8th Cavalry began their drive northeast of Hill 346 and made progress. However, they could not flank the objective. For the next two days the 5th and 8th Cavalry sustained the pressure on Hill 346 without success.

By now, the rugged terrain of the hill, showing the effects of heavy artillery barrages that had stripped all vegetation and trees, was designated as "Old Baldy". On 18 October, the 1st Battalion 5th Cavalry and took Hill 346 against stiff resistance. Later in the day, the 3rd Battalion met similar resistance on Hill 230, but the 2nd Battalion managed to seize Hill 340, just left of Hill 346. The 8th Cavalry pushed well beyond Hill 287 and took over control of the area north of Hill 346. That night the Chinese gave up and retreated. By 19 October the 1st Cavalry Division had seized the last of its objectives on Line "Jamestown" as the enemy retreated north of Yokkok-chon to his next line of defense. With these final gains, the mission of Operation COMMANDO was complete.

The cost to the enemy had been high. Estimates of enemy losses during the 3 to 19 October period placed the total well over 21,000, including 300 prisoners. Nearly 16,000 causalties had been inflicted upon the enemy by the 1st Cavalry Division alone, as it reduced the crack CCF 47th Army to half strength. Later data, gained from intelligence reports, pointed out that Chinese Commanders may have had a lack of interest in the fate of front line regiments which had been ordered to resist to the end rather than ordering up reserves in a heavy counterattack to attempt the retaking of lost territory .

On 23 October, Operation STONEWALL was launched. Its objective was to strengthen Line "Jamestown" by building a wall of defenses which would prevent possible enemy counterattacks. The battle for establishing the outposts on the rugged high ground just south of the Yokkok River proved to be extremely hard. The enemy was unwilling to give up the high ground which would give the 1st Cavalry Division a better command position. The 5th Cavalry Regiment experienced the greatest difficulty in securing their assigned areas. On the first day, only "K" Company was able to secure its objective. The next day "A" and "C" Companies moved forward to successfully secure their bases, but following a night counterattack, they had to fall back to the main line. Resistance was similar elsewhere, initial efforts were often without success. Heavy bombardment increased the intensity of the repeated assaults and objectives were taken. but not without losses.

On 28 October, in action against the enemy near Chong-dong, 1st Lieutenant Lloyd L. Burke, "G" Company, 5th Cavalry observed that intense enemy fire had pinned down leading elements of his company committed to secure commanding ground. 1st Lieutenant Burke left the command post to rally and urge the men to follow him toward three bunkers impeding the advance. Dashing to an exposed vantage point he threw several grenades at the bunkers, then, returning for an Ml rifle and adapter, he made a lone assault, wiping out the position and killing the crew. Closing on the center bunker he lobbed grenades through the opening and, with his pistol, killed three of its occupants that were attempting to surround him. Ordering his men forward he charged the third emplacement, catching several grenades in midair and hurling them back at the enemy. Inspired by his display of valor, his men stormed forward, overran the hostile position, but were again pinned down by increased fire. Securing a light machine gun and three boxes of ammunition, 1st Lieutenant Burke dashed through the impact area to an open knoll, set up his gun and poured a crippling fire into the ranks of the enemy, killing approximately seventy-five. Although wounded, he ordered more ammunition, reloading and destroying two mortar emplacements and a machine gun position with his accurate fire. Cradling the weapon in his arms he then led his men forward, killing some twenty-five more of the retreating enemy and securing the objective. 1st Lieutenant Burke's heroic action and daring exploits inspired his small force of thirty-five troops. For his valiant action, 1st Lieutenant Lloyd L. Burke received the Medal of Honor.

By the end of October, Line "Jamestown" and its Outpost of Line Resistance (OPLR) was seemingly secure in friendly hands. On 01 November, the 5th Cavalry went into Division reserve and remained there for several days while the 7th and 8th Cavalry continued organization of the lines. Interrogation of prisoners revealed the CCF planned to send reserve battalions forward to overwhelm UN patrol bases and then withdraw. Such strong forays began to occur in the left column of the 1st Cavalry Division sector. In response to these actions, the 5th Cavalry returned to positions between the 7th and 8th Cavalry Regiments.

On 10 November 1951, the 70th Tank Battalion status of attachment changed and it was permanently assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division. On 19 November, the 3rd Infantry Division assumed responsibility for the sector. Beginning a gradual phase out of the 1st Cavalry Division from the front lines, the 5th Cavalry moved off the line and the 7th and 8th Cavalry, along with the 61st and 77th Field Artillery were placed under operational control of the 3rd Infantry Division. On 21 November, the 7th Cavalry moved into a reserve status, far from the front.

 

Meanwhile, the 8th Cavalry was rotating platoons through its patrol bases in order to give them a rest. The majority of its forces were situated north of the 38th parallel, near Sokkogae, North Korea, southwest of Chorwon. One particular platoon outpost located on Hill 255, called "Three Sisters" which was later to be known as "PorkChop Hill", located about 1900 yards west of "F" Company, was under the command of Lieutenant James Stone. At about midday of 21 November, the platoon began receiving artillery and mortar fire. At 2205 hours, the enemy unleashed a tremendous preparatory barrage. At 2215 hours, the position was attacked by a battalion size, Chinese force. Hostile artillery blasted the defensive position and hundreds of screaming, grenade throwing Chinese swarmed up the slopes, blowing holes in the barbed wire with bangalore torpedoes.

In the engagement at "Three Sisters", one of the last major battles of the war, the platoon of 1st Lieutenant James L. Stone, "F" Company, 8th Cavalry, came under heavy attack by overwhelming Chinese forces, 1st Lieutenant Stone stood erect and exposed to the terrific enemy fire calmly directed his men in the defense. He further exposed himself by moving to a defensive flame-thrower that had failed to function and repaired the weapon. Throughout a second attack, 1st Lieutenant Stone, though painfully wounded, personally carried the only remaining light machine gun from place to place in the position in order to bring fire upon the Chinese advancing from two directions. Throughout the battle, he continued to encourage and direct his depleted platoon in its hopeless defense. Although again wounded, he continued the fight with his carbine, still exposing himself as an example to his men. When this final overwhelming assault swept over the platoon position, his voice could still be heard faintly urging his men to carry on, until he lost consciousness. Only because of his driving spirit and heroic action was the platoon emboldened to make its brave but hopeless last ditch stand. For his valiant action, 1st Lieutenant James L. Stone received the Medal of Honor.

Elements of the 1st Cavalry Division that had not been placed under the control of the 3rd Infantry Division, moved south to the old reserve area east of Uijong-bu. There, the units carried out an initial program of care and cleaning of equipment. After time out for a second Thanksgiving, intensive training was reinstituted. By December 1951, the Division, after 549 days of continuous fighting, began planning for rotation back to Hokkaido, Japan. The First Team had performed tough duties with honor, pride, and valor with distinction.

The service of the 1st Cavalry Division in the Korean War was not without a price. As a grim reminder of their remarkable legacy, the 1st Cavalry Division experienced causalities of 12,053 Wounded, 3,175 Killed In Action, 670 Prisoners of War of who 180 Died In Captivity, and 545 Missing In Action of who 448 were eventually declared dead.


    

Copyright © 1996, Cavalry Outpost Publications ® and Trooper Wm. H. Boudreau, "F" Troop, 8th Cavalry Regiment (1946 - 1947). All rights to this body of work are reserved and are not in the public domain, or as noted in the bibliography. Reproduction, or transfer by electronic means, of the History of the 1st Cavalry Division, the subordinate units or any internal element, is not permitted without prior authorization. Readers are encouraged to link to any of the pages of this Web site, provided that proper acknowledgment attributing to the source of the data is made. The information or content of the material contained herein is subject to change without notice.



Position cursor on selected function, "Click" and "Hold".

 

Soon after the 1st Cavalry Division had been pulled off Line "Jamestown" and placed in reserve, word came down that they were to assume a new mission of establishing a strong defensive military presence in the mountainous, northern island of Hokkaido, Japan. Hokkaido is the second largest of the four main islands of Japan. The climate of Hokkaido is rather cold and harsh in the winter but not as hot and humid in the summer as it is in the other regions of Japan. The reasons for uprooting and transferring the 1st Cavalry Division to the northern island of Hokkaido, Japan were founded upon a long standing strategy to deter the interests of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from expanding their control and influence further eastward.

In negotiations among the World War II allies, Joseph Stalin declared his interest in occupying the nearby islands of Sakhalin, Hokkaido, and Kurile in exchange for entry of the USSR into the war against Japan. President Roosevelt disagreed, but by the end of the war, Soviet troops had taken Sakhalin and the Kuriles and were preparing to invade Hokkaido. To preempt any actions, the 77th Infantry Division, recently battered in bloody fighting on Okinawa, was rushed to Hokkaido to disarm the Japanese garrisons and establish a firm control under the United States. Regiments of the 77th Division established themselves at Asahigawa, Hokkaido's capital, Sapporo, its principal city, and Chitose, the site of a former Japanese naval air training base.

In early 1946, when the 77th Division was demobilized, the 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 11th Airborne Division assumed responsibility for the entire island, establishing its headquarters on the site of a Japanese experimental dairy farm at Sapporo. The garrison, named Camp Crawford for a major who had won the Distinguished Service Cross, gradually grew to become a permanent installation with brick barracks and stucco administration buildings, family housing, an all-grade school, clubs, and support facilities. In 1948 the 31st Infantry Regiment, 7th Infantry Division moved from Korea to Camp Crawford, absorbing most of the personnel of the 511th Parachute Infantry Regiment.

The 31st Infantry, the famous "Polar Bear Regiment" that had served in Siberia during World War I and fought to the end at Bataan during World War II, was stationed on Hokkaido from 1948 to 1950. The rest of the 7th Infantry Division was stationed near Sendai on the main Japanese island, Honshu.

 

Korea

June 25, 1950

When the Korean War broke out in 1950, the 7th Infantry Division furnished troops to the 24th Infantry, 25th Infantry, and 1st Cavalry Divisions as those units deployed to Korea in early July and August.

18 July
First Cavalry Division (RCT 5 and RCT 8; 10,027 troops) began landing at P'ohang-dong under CTF 90.

 

Spring 1951

When the 7th Infantry Division began its rotation to Korea in the spring of 1951, the 45th Infantry Division, a National Guard unit from Oklahoma, arrived on Hokkaido to continue the show of force against the possibility of a Soviet invasion. The Division established its headquarters, trains, engineers, special troops, and one infantry regiment at Camp Crawford while the artillery, a tank battalion, and two infantry regiments were housed in Quonset huts at Camp Chitose. The Division trained hard throughout 1951, anticipating its commitment to combat which came in 1952, when the 45th relieved the 1st Cavalry Division in central Korea.

To carry out the rotation, the 45th Infantry Division had to be moved from Hokkaido, Japan to assume the assignments of the 1st Cavalry Division. Advance parties of both divisions, down to company level were flown to their new locations to facilitate the move. The transfer of the main body of the two divisions was completed by water in four principal steps.

The first of the regiments to leave Korea, the 5th Cavalry Regiment was relieved in reserve by the 180th Infantry Regiment.

December 7, 1951

On 07 December, the 5th Cavalry Regiment left Inch'ŏn. Four days later, its convoy entered the harbor of Muroran, on the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, and movement to Camp Chitose, Area I was completed by train.

December 18, 1951

On 18 December, the 7th Cavalry Regiment departed Korea. On 30 December, the 8th Cavalry Regiment, the first of the regiments to engage the enemy in Korea, turned over its equipment to the 279th Infantry Regiment and moved out in skirmish lines in a march over the hills and to the beach where they were loaded into LSTs. The last unit to embark was the 77th Field Artillery, which had moved off the line as the year of 1951 was ending.

January 12, 1952

On 12 January 1952, the 77th left Korea and arrived at the port of Muroran on 16 January closing out the move of the 1st Cavalry Division from Korea to Hokkaido just 18 months after the July 1950 landing at Pohangdong.

 


In its rotation to Hokkaido, the 1st Cavalry Division was assigned the mission to defend the Island of Hokkaido while maintaining maximum combat readiness in the event that it was necessary for their re-intervention in the Korea theater. Hokkaido, the most northern island of Japan, is certainly is coldest. By its unique strategic proximity to the Asian mainland, Hokkaido was a key center of electronic surveillance for gathering intelligence on Russian activities. The northern tip of the island is only a few miles from Sakalin, a large Russian island, and from the Kuril Islands, also Russian. The majority of the electronic listening posts and radar centers on Hokkaido were under the control and managed by the US Air Force which, in addition to the task of monitoring Russian broadcasts, tracked movement of all Russian aircraft.

Under the command of Major General Thomas L. Harrold, the division controlled a huge training area of 155,000 acres. In their new locations, troopers found facilities comparable to those of state-side camps. 1st Cavalry Division Headquarters and the 7th Cavalry Regiment were stationed outside Sapporo at Camp Crawford with its steam heated, red brick barracks. Camp Crawford had been constructed in 1946 on the location of the Makomanai National Dairy, which was the largest dairy farm in Japan operated by the Japanese Agricultural Ministry. The 5th Cavalry Regiment was stationed 25 miles southeast of Sapporo, at Camp Chitose, Area I, adjoining the Chitose Air Force Base and adjacent to the thriving Japanese town of Chitose, for which it was named. About four miles east of Chitose, the 8th Cavalry Regiment and the 70th Tank Battalion occupied the new Quonsets of Camp Chitose II.

As soon as the main command group arrived, plans for the defense of the island of Hokkaido were formulated. Elements of the plan included Passive Air Defense, Civil Disturbance Alert, Dependant Evacuation Plan and a Chemical, Biological and Radiological Defense training. In addition, work began on a Master Training Program encompassing physical training, map reading, mine and field fortifications, signal communication, camouflage, first aid and tactical organization and deployment. The climate and terrain of Hokkaido were ideally suited for instruction in Arctic survival techniques, skiing and snow-shoeing. In parallel with these activities, the Division undertook an exhaustive aerial and ground reconnaissance and mapping of the island,

By early 1952 the 1st Cavalry Division was well on its way to becoming accustomed to the frigid temperatures and heavy snows of Hokkaido.

March 7, 1952

On 07 March, the Island of Hokkaido gave the troops of the 1st Cavalry Division an unexpected welcome. In addition to the standard manifestation of being knocked down to the ground, an earthquake cracked the concrete floors of the Quonset Huts and cracked the overhead water and steam pipes. The engineers had a major task on their hands in restoring normal operations.

By the end April, the initial training program was completed by all of the Division units and a new dimension to the training was added.

On 21 April plans took shape for training in Air Transportability training. The training was conducted by the a team of officers and enlisted men from the 187th Airborne Regiment, who concentrated on the principles of troop air movement.

June 1, 1952

On 01 June, having learned how to go into battle by air, troopers began an extensive training in assaults by water with the initiation of an Amphibious training program conducted by members of the of Mobile (Marine) Training Team "Able" (MTTC "A"). By the end of June, a new program of Light Aviation Training was introduced which enabled the training of personnel in the use of light aircraft in field exercises

Naval surface operations during the summer of 1952 had consisted mainly of routine patrol and blockade of the Korean coast, mine sweeping operations, and the shelling of targets along the coast to harass and interdict the enemy's lines of communication. But the biggest naval operation, AMPHIBIOUS TASK FORCE SEVEN, was a planned exercise/demonstration at Kojo on the east coast of North Korea.

In July, it was decided that it might be wise in the interest of economy for the Army to hold a major troop movement and landing exercise in connection with the naval operation. This combined Navy - Army exercise might also provide an opportunity to alarm the Communists that a new land invasion was underway. However, one of the main reasons for the troop movement, lack of adequate garrison facilities in Japan, the Army had decided to rotate the three Regimental Combat Teams (RCT's) of the 1st Cavalry Division back to Korea, one at a time.

The Navy was heartily in favor of some action and suggested that an amphibious demonstration be mounted. This could conceivably lure enemy reinforcements out on the roads and expose them to attack by air and surface craft. Under Vice Admiral Robert P. Brisco, the Seventh Fleet commander, joint AMPHIBIOUS TASK FORCE SEVEN was set up with 15 October established as the target date. The demonstration was scheduled for the area near Kojo, North Korea and planning for the land, sea, and air phases proceeded at a swift pace. Two alternative assault plans were worked up, one for a landing by two divisions in column and one for an attack by a single RCT. For purposes of deception, only the highest echelon of command knew that the maneuver was to be only a demonstration.

Supporting Divisional plans, prepared for re-deployment of Regimental Combat Teams to Korea for a sixty day tour of duty, were designated Operation DECOY.

On 05 October 1952 the 8th Cavalry, along with the 99th Field Artillery Battalion, "C" Battery, 29th AAA AW Battalion and elements of the 2nd Engineer Amphibious Special Brigade departed Camp Chitose II for movement to Otaru in preparation for a practice amphibious landing on beaches near Kangnung, South Korea which was to be carried out on 12 October. History would repeat itself for the 8th Cavalry. for it had participated in the first amphibious landing of the Korean war two years and three months earlier.

The amphibious ships carrying the 8th Cavalry Regiment sortied from Hokkaido. On 12 October, D minus 3, the planned rehearsal was carried out at Kangnung, hampered by winds of 25 knots. With the loss of four Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVPs) after broaching on the beach, the rehearsal operations had to be broken off. The next day all troops re-embarked and sailed farther north. For the next three days, handicapped by the same weather conditions, the Far Eastern Air Force (FEAF) and the Fifth Air Force stepped up their operations around Kojo. Joining in. the planes from the supporting Navy carriers targeted enemy positions around Kojo and North Korean Naval surface craft.

On 15 October the 8th Cavalry RCT aboard the USS Bayfield, arriving off the east coast of North Korea near the Kojo beach area, was joined by a larger force of more than a hundred ships, including the Carriers USS Sicily and USS Badoeng Strait, led by the Battleship USS Iowa. At 1400 hours landing craft were launched for preparation for the landing. As part of the feint, troops went over the side of the ship and as the boats circled around the ship the troops were picked up on the seaward side of the ship and sent below. Operating in this manner gave the North Koreans the illusion that the boats were still loaded as they headed for shore.

Seven waves of landing craft were sent in from the transport area to pass the line of departure and then retire, seaward. During the assault landing feint, owing to the skill of the coxswains, no boats were lost or seriously damaged. but two mine-sweepers were hit by shore fire and five carrier planes lost to enemy anti-aircraft fire.

The enemy response to the elaborate scheme was disappointing. Little evidence of significant troop transfers came to light and the Communist shore batteries threw only a few answering shells at the assault force. Whether this denoted a lack of mobility to respond quickly or perhaps a preference to wait until the United Nations Command (UNC) troops had landed and then to launch a counterattack was impossible to surmise. Evidently the discovery that the operation was only a feint added to the frustration of all the UNC personnel who had not been in on the secret. The realism of the planning and mounting of the operation had built up UNC expectations and although the training was adjudged valuable, the damage to morale served to balance this off.

Following completion of the exercise the USS Bayfield moved south, across the 38th Parallel, to PoHangdong (the same beach that the 1st Cavalry Division had landed on in July 1950) and the 8th RCT conducted a beach landing as originally planned. After the landing exercises were completed the 8th RCT moved south to Camp Tongnae, Korea, a location outside of Pusan.

In November, elements of the 8th Cavalry Combat Team were attached to the 772nd Military Police Battalion. This attachment was a first of a series of security missions performed by units of the 1st Cavalry Division. During this period, cavalrymen wore Military Police brassards and rode trains and guarded marshalling yards. In the marshalling yards, the troopers rode "shotgun" along with the Korean police to provide security for rail cars being transferred or loaded. Those who drew UN Express passenger car duty turned out in Class "A" uniforms and performed "stateside" duty enroute.

Another variation of the Military Police duties was the guarding of hospital trains that carried either wounded UN or enemy soldiers. For the next two months the regiment performed security missions around the familiar cities of Pusan and Taegu, away from the main fighting.

On 08 December 1952, the 7th Cavalry Regiment (less the Tank Company and Tank Maintenance Section), the 77th Field Artillery Battalion and "B" Battery, 29th AAA AW Battalion departed Camp Crawford and moved to Otrau for loading and on 12 December, sailed for Pusan to relieve the 8th Cavalry Regiment. On 15 December, the 7th Cavalry Regiment Combat Team arrived at Pusan and effected a relief of the 8th Cavalry Regiment Combat Team who were guarding Prisoners of War (POW) at Camp Tongnae, Korea. On 18 December, the 8th Cavalry Regiment Combat Team arrived in Otaru and by 20 December, the 8th Cavalry Troopers, the 99th Field Artillery and "C" Battery, 29th AAA AW Battalion were all back in Hokkaido in time to celebrate Christmas and join in the winter training program.

The mission of the 7th Cavalry Regiment Combat Team was to furnish tactical support to Korean Communications Zone (KCOMZ). A secondary mission was to furnish security elements for critical areas, in conjunction with specialized training. The 1st Battalion was quartered at the Daisan School assigned port security in the Pusan area, the 2nd Battalion was assigned security for the KCOMZ Headquarters area and providing train security guards for the Pusan-Taegu railways and the Heavy Mortar Company provided security for the United Nations Civil Assistance Command, Korea. (UNCACK) Headquarters. On 19 December, the 3rd Battalion and "B" Battery, 29th AAA AW were attached to UN POW Command, Koje-do as part of POW Command Reserve and "E" Company was assigned security duty at Taejon. The 77th Field Artillery, encamped at Ichon-ni, conducted training for all its batteries. The crews of the Air-Section, consisting of two L-19 aircraft, flew emergency flights in addition to observation flights for battery service sections. Each of the units were augmented by an attachment of Medical and Service personnel.

On 10 February 1953, the 5th Cavalry Regiment, 61st Field Artillery Battalion and Battery "A", 29th AAA AW Battalion, departed from Otaru, Japan for Pusan and Koje-do, Korea to relieve the 7th Cavalry Combat Team. On 15 February, the convoy carrying the 7th Cavalry Combat Team sailed from Pusan and docked at Otaru on 18 February. Final troop movement to Camp Chitose was made by rail. By 20 February the 7th Cavalry fresh from their Korean assignment, were assigned to the winter training program. In Korea, the 5th Cavalry Regimental Headquarters was stationed outside of Pusan. The 1st Battalion was assigned security missions in the area from Pusan to Teagu, the 2nd Battalion was assigned the from area from Teagu to Taejon, and the 3rd Battalion covered the area from Taejon to Sŏul. On 27 April, all elements of the 5th Cavalry Combat Team, less the 3rd Battalion and Heavy Mortar Company, who remained on their security mission, returned to Camp Chitose I, Hokkaido.

In June the 82nd Field Artillery Battalion executed Operation FORTNIGHT, during which the battalion traveled more than 160 miles in a two-week exercise. In July, amphibious training was resumed and on 16 July, the 5th Cavalry Regiment completed a ten day motor and foot march reconnaissance to the Muroran Peninsula. The units remaining in Korea continued security missions under control of KCOMZ.

 


The Korean War wound down to a negotiated halt when the long awaited armistice was signed at 10:00 on 27 July 1953. A Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). a corridor - four kilometers wide and 249 kilometers long, was established dividing North and South Korea. The nominal line of the buffer zone was along the 38th parallel; however, the final negotiations of the adjacent geographical areas, gave the North Korean government approximately 850 square miles south of the 38th parallel and the South Korean government some 2,350 square miles north of it.

On 09 September 1953, the 3rd Battalion and Heavy Mortar Company of the 5th Cavalry Regiment returned to Hokkaido after seven months of duty in Korea. Planning was initiated for the 7th and 8th Regimental Combat Teams to conduct landing exercises at Chigasaki Beach on Honshu during October and November.

 


In October 1953, the Table of Organization for the 1st Cavalry Division Band was downsized from the authorized ninety-six to forty-eight troopers. The surplus band members were transferred to the 5th, 7th and 8th Cavalry Regiments and were allowed to form a Drum and Bugle Corps which represented the regiments at various functions. In July 1954, the Band, in line with their alternate security mission of the division, was assigned a secondary mission as a Smoke Generator Unit.

In January 1954, commencing the third year on Hokkaido, the division began winter training for all units. On 15 February a new dimension was added to the intensive troop training program of the 1st Cavalry Division when "F" Company, 5th Cavalry Regiment took to the sky in a tactical airlift training operation. Using a system of shuttle flights, H-19 helicopters from the 6th Helicopter Company, transported the soldiers from their home base of Camp Schimmelpfennig to the training area of Ojoji-hara, some thirty miles away. Immediately upon arrival, the troopers, clad in overwhites, moved out with complete field gear, and set up operations. On 21 February, a new unit, the 41st Infantry Scout Dog Platoon joined the Division.

With the advent of warmer weather, the division resumed their extensive training for Air Transport and Amphibious Training. Company, Battalion, and Regimental Tests and full scale division maneuvers were scheduled for early fall.

 


In September 1954, the Japanese assumed full responsibility for defending the Island of Hokkaido and the former home of the 1st Cavalry Division was turned over to the Japanese Ground Self Defense Forces. The entire First Team was relocated to the main Island of Honshu. Headquarters, 1st Cavalry Division and the 5th Cavalry Regiment were moved to Camp Schimmelpfennig outside Sendai. The 7th Cavalry Regiment and the 29th AAA AW Battalion occupied Camp Haugen, near Hachinohe. The 8th Cavalry Regiment began a motorized transport to a seaport, boarded LSTs for a rough journey to the main island of Honshu, landing in Tokyo Bay. Undertaking a combined march and motorized transport of 65 miles, they ended up at Camp Whittington, an abandoned Japanese airbase, located near Koisumi, north of Tokyo.

On 26 September, during the relocation from Hokkaido to Aomori, the 99th FA Battalion experienced the loss of 35 men and one officer, along with two men from the 8th Cavalry Regiment, one man from the 15th Medical Battalion and approximately 1,500 Japanese civilians, in the sinking of the commercial ferry Toya Maru in the Tsugaru Straits during a typhoon. Eventually, all the artillery battalions, the 61st, 77th, 82nd and 99th, were garrisoned at Camp Younghans, Yamagata Prefecture, near the town of Jinmachi approximately 35 miles west of Sendai.

Headquarters and Headquarters and Service Company and "D" Company, 8th Engineers along with a special ordnance detachment were stationed at Camp Loper Depot, a small camp one mile from the small sea port of Shigoma and approximately 20 miles from Camp Schimmelpfennig. The ordnance detachment took care of all ammunition stored in the underground magazines which, due to security issues, were "off limits".

In January 1955 the majority of the division participated in winter training. All of the regiments and the Division Artillery spent several weeks in the field at the Ojoji-Hara, Sekine, Fugi and Otakani Maneuver areas. Throughout the next three years the division was engaged in an almost endless series of field exercises along with the primary mission of guarding the northern sections of Honshu. And as new mission requirements were established and needs changed, units were relocated to various regional camp facilities.

In 1956, while the 5th Cavalry Regiment remained at Camp Schimmelpfennig in Sendai and the 8th Cavalry Regiment remained at Camp Whittington located near Koisumi, North of Tokyo, the 7th Cavalry Regiment was relocated to Camp Otsu near Kyoto. The 1st Cavalry Division Artillery and Band were at Camp Drake outside Tokyo and the 70th Tank Battalion was stationed at Camp Fuji. The 13th Signal Company was garrisoned at Hardy Barracks in the Roppongi district of Tokyo.

Previously, in the period of Japanese Occupation before the Korean War, Hardy Barracks, orgionally named the 3rd Imperial Guard Barracks had the home station for the 2nd Brigade Headquarters Command Post and the 8th Cavalry Regiment.

In March 1956 Headquarters and Headquarters and Service Company and "D" Company of the 8th Engineers vacated Camp Loper with their heavy equipment being transported by LSTs. Personnel moved overland by truck convoy to Camp Drake, outside of Tokyo, where they remained until the division was reorganized in 1957.

In early May 1956, in preparation for a landing exercise. Marines of Mobile Training Team Bravo 2-56, Landing Force Training Unit, Pacific Fleet, set up headquarters at Camp Whittington and initiated pre-float training classes for all 8th Cavalry Regiment personnel. Following the training, from 28 May to 15 June, elements of the 1st Cavalry Division and the 3rd Marine Division held a joint amphibious landing exercise at Iwo Jima. Troopers from the 13th Signal Company and the 8th Cavalry Regiment along with Air Force personnel and Marine radio teams formed a strike team operating off the USS Point Pleasant, a Landing Ship, Dock (LSD). In perhaps the first use of helicopters in a landing exercise, the LSD landed on the beaches of Iwo Jima and the Intelligence and Reconnaissance (I&R) platoon from the 8th Cavalry Regiment performed a reconnaissance of Mt. Suribachi on choppers from the LSD.

It had been 5 years and 8 months of occupational duty since December of 1951, when the 1st Cavalry Division had initially rotated back to Hokkaido, Japan from the Korean War. They had been assigned many occupational and training duties and their assigned subordinate units were dispersed and relocated from over a significant portion of Hokkaido to the main island of Honshu. Major station locations assigned to them slowly moved the Division Commands back to Camp Drake, outside of Tokyo, where they had been initially headquartered for Occupational Duty at the end of World War II in 1945.

1st CAVALRY DIVISION STATION LISTING
STATION LOCATION 01 Chitose, JP
02 Makonamai, JP
03 Taegu, KR
04 Pusan, KR
05 Koje do, KR
06 Sendai, JP
07 Musichiukawa, JP
08 Koisumi, JP
09 Gotamba, JP
10 Tokyo, JP
11 Otsu, JP
DATE - Month/Year Feb
1952
Feb
1953
Feb
1954
Feb
1955
Feb
1956
Feb
1957
Aug
1957
Hq & Hq Company 01 02 02 06 06 10 10
Medical Det, Div Headquarters 01 02 02 06 06 10 10
5th Cavalry Regiment 01 01 01 06 06 06 06
7th Cavalry Regiment 01 02 01 07 07 11 11
2nd Bn, 7th Cavalry 03
3rd Bn, 7th Cavalry 05
Tank Co, 7th Cavalry 04 09 09
8th Cavalry Regiment 01 02 02 08 08 08 08
Tank Co, 8th Cavalry 01
Division Artillery
Hq & Hq Battery 01 01 01 06 06 10 10
Medical Det, Division Arty 01 01 01 06 06 10 10
61st FA Bn (105mm How) 01 01 01 06 06 06 06
77th FA Bn (105mm How) 01 04 01 07 07 10 10
82nd FA Bn (155mm How) 01 01 01 06 06 11 11
99th FA Bn (105mm How) 01 02 02 06 06 08 08
29th AAA AW Bn (SP) 01 01 01 07 07 10 10
"B" Battery 05
"C" Battery 02
Support Command
1st Cavalry Division Band 01 02 02 06 06 10 10
15th Medical Bn 01 01 01 06 06 10 10
Ambulance Co 01 11 11
Medical Detachment 08 08 08 08
15th Quartermaster Co 01 02 02 06 08 10 10
15th Replacement Co 01 02 01 08 08 10 10
27th Ordnance Maint Bn 01 02 02 06 06 10 10
1st Pltn, "A" Co 01 07 07 06 06
2nd Pltn, "A" Co 11 11
3rd Pltn, "A" Co 01 09 08 08
Separate Battalions/Companies
8th Eng'r Combat Bn 01 01 01 06 06 10 10
"A" Co 06 06
"B" Co 07 07 11 11
"C" Co 08 08 08 08
13th Signal Co 01 02 02 06 06 10 10
16th Reconnaissance Co 01 01 01 01 09 11 11
70th Tank Bn 01 01 01 01 09 09 09
545th MP Co 01 02 02 06 06 10 10
1st Traffic Pltn 07 06 06
2nd Traffic Pltn 07 11 11
3rd Traffic Pltn 06 06 08
If a station is not designated for a subordinate unit, it is co-stationed with its command unit.

On 29 August 1957, compliance with a treaty, signed by the governments of Japan and the United States in 1957 which required the removal of all US ground forces from Japan's main islands, went into effect. The 1st Cavalry Division, headquartered at Camp Drake, Tokyo along with its subordinate units stationed throughout Honshu, Japan, were given orders to reduce strength to zero personnel and transfer to Korea (minus equipment). On 23 September 1957, General Order 89 announced the redesignation of the 24th Infantry Division as the 1st Cavalry Division and issued orders to reorganize the Division under the "Pentomic" concept, which utilized five "Battle Group" maneuvering units, rather than the "regimental" units.


Copyright © 1996, Cavalry Outpost Publications ® and Trooper Wm. H. Boudreau, "F" Troop, 8th Cavalry Regiment (1946 - 1947). All rights to this body of work are reserved and are not in the public domain, or as noted in the bibliography. Reproduction, or transfer by electronic means, of the History of the 1st Cavalry Division, the subordinate units or any internal element, is not permitted without prior authorization. Readers are encouraged to link to any of the pages of this Web site, provided that proper acknowledgment attributing to the source of the data is made. The information or content of the material contained herein is subject to change without notice.

Revised 01 Jan '12


1st Cavalry Division
Maj. Gen. Hobart R. Gay
Brig Gen Thomas L. Harrold
 Brig. Gen. Frank A. Allen, Jr.
 
 
5th Cavalry
 
Johnny Johnson's 5th Cav
Col. Marcel Gustave Crombez, USA
7th Cavalry
 
Col. William "Wild Bill" A. Harris
? James K. Woolnough
8th Cavalry
wiped out 11/2/50
? Hallett D. ("Hal") Edson
? Raymond D. Palmer
 
1st Battalion
1st Battalion
? Morgan B. Heasley
A
B
C
1st Battalion
? Peter Demosthenes Clainos
A
B
C
1st Battalion
 ? John Millikin, Jr.
A
B
C
 
2nd Battalion
2nd Battalion 
? Paul T. Clifford
D
E
F
2nd Battalion
? William A. ("Billy") Harris
D
E
F
2nd Battalion
? William Walton
D
E
F
 
3rd Battalion 3rd Battalion
????
G
H
I
3rd Battalion
James H. Lynch
G
H
I
3rd Battalion
? Johnny Johnson
? Robert J. Ormond
Veale F. Moriarty's 3/8
 
 

July 18, 1950
 

The 1st Cav Division began landing unopposed and piecemeal at P'ohang on July 18. First came the 8th Cav Regiment, then the 5th Cav, and lastly, the 7th Cav, delayed en route by a typhoon.

Much was expected of the 1st Cav Division. Before it "dismounted" in World War II to become regular infantry it had had a long and colorful equestrian history. Since childhood MacArthur had been mesmerized by that history and by the outfit's songs ("Garry Owen"; "She Wore a Yellow Ribbon") and legends. During World War II and the occupation of Japan the 1st Cav had been his favorite - and favored - division. The famous 7th Cavalry Regiment (which had been commanded by George Armstrong Custer at Little Bighorn) had held the place of honor in Tokyo, providing color guards, bands, and "troopers," bedecked with yellow scarves for ceremonies and parades. Before the Eighth Army levy to beef up the 24th Division, the 1st Cav had been grandly rated at "84 percent" combat ready. Initially it had been chosen for the starring role in the Inch'ŏn landing.[6-34]

The 1st Cav was commanded by fifty-six-year-old two-star General Hobart R. Gay, who was nicknamed Happy, shortened to Hap.  

 

As planned, Walker ordered Gay to attack directly up the Taegu - Taejŏn road, to the left (or south) of Kean's redeploying 25th Division. The 1st Cav would relieve the shattered 24th Division at Yŏngdong and block the NKPA advance toward Taegu astride the Taegu - Taejŏn road. What remained of the 24th Division would be withdrawn to Taegu, to constitute a reserve behind the 1st Cav and 25th Divisions.
  

In June 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea and despite woeful manning and equipment shortages, the First Team prepared for their next combat.  



The 1st Cavalry Division stormed ashore at Pohang Dong, South Korea, in the Korean War’s first amphibious landing.  By July 1950, the division began offensive operations to the north and crossed the 38th parallel on October 9th.  Closing on North Korea’s capital ten days later, the “First Team” was "First in Pyongyang".  With the war almost won and US forces just south of the Chinese border the Chinese Communist Forces entered the war and the onslaught of numerically superior forces overran and encircled the 8th Cavalry Regiment at Unsan.  United Nation’s forces began a withdrawal and were pushed past the 38th Parallel and below Seoul.  The UN forces counter attacked and the 1st Cavalry Division again crossed the 38th parallel as fighting settled along that area.  After 549 days of continuous combat, the division began planning to return to Japan.  The division established a defensive military presence in the northern island of Hokkaido.  Several units of the division returned to serve in Korea. During the Korean War eleven Troopers of the First Team were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions.