|Regiment||187th RCT||5th RCT|
|5th RCT||5th RCT|
|187th RCT||187th RCT|
USA 0007 7th Infantry Regiment
USA 0015 15th Infantry Regiment
USA 0065 65th Infantry Regiment
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|3rd Infantry Division|
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 3rd Infantry Division
|Branch||United States Army|
|Part of||Forces Command|
|Motto||Rock of the Marne|
|Mascot||Rocky the Bulldog|
World War I
World War II
|MG John M. Murray|
MG Joseph T. Dickman
MG John P. Lucas
MG Lucian Truscott
LTG John W. O'Daniel
|Distinctive unit insignia|
|US infantry divisions (1939–present)|
|2nd Infantry Division||4th Infantry Division|
The 3rd Infantry Division (nicknamed the "Rock of the Marne") is a United States Army infantry division based at Fort Stewart, Georgia. It is a direct subordinate unit of the XVIII Airborne Corps and U.S. Army Forces Command. Its current organization includes three brigade combat teams, one aviation brigade, a division artillery and support elements.
The division fought in France in World War I. In World War II, it landed with Gen. Patton's task force in a contested amphibious landing on the coast of Morocco, North Africa, overwhelming Vichy French defenders in November 1942. In 1943, the division invaded Sicily in July, and invaded Italy at Salerno in September, before fighting in France and finally Germany. Medal of Honor recipient Audie Murphy, featured in the Hollywood movie, "To Hell and Back," was a member. The division also served in the Korean War. From 1957 until 1996, the division was a major part of the United States Army's presence in the NATO alliance in West Germany.
The 3rd Infantry Division was activated in November 1917 during World War I at Camp Greene, North Carolina. Eight months later, it saw combat for the first time in France. At midnight on 14 July 1918, the division earned lasting distinction. Engaged in the Aisne-Marne Offensive as a member of the American Expeditionary Force to Europe, the division was protecting Paris with a position on the banks of the Marne River. The 7th Machine Gun Battalion of the 3rd Division rushed to Château-Thierry amid retreating French troops and held the Germans back at the Marne River. While surrounding units retreated, the 3rd Infantry Division, including the 30th and 38th Infantry Regiments, remained steadfast throughout the Second Battle of the Marne, thus earning its nickname as the "Rock of the Marne". The rest of the division was absorbed under French command until brought back together under the command of General Joseph T. Dickman and by 15 July 1918 they took the brunt of what was to be the last German offensive of the war. General "Black Jack" Pershing called this stand "one of the most brilliant pages in the annals of military history". During the war two members of the division were awarded the Medal of Honor.
Casualties during the war were 3,177 killed in action with 12,940 wounded.
The 3rd Division is one of the few American divisions that fought the Axis on all European fronts and was among the first U.S. combat units to engage in offensive ground combat operations during World War II. During World War II, the division fought in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, France, Germany and Austria for 531 consecutive days of combat.
The division first saw action as a part of the Western Task Force in the invasion of North Africa, landing at Fedala on 8 November 1942, and captured half of French Morocco. Eight months later, on 10 July 1943, the division made an assault landing on Sicily, Licata town on the beach, to west, called Torre di Gaffi and Mollarella and on the beach, to east, called Falconara. Fought its way into Palermo before the armor could get there, and raced on to capture Messina, thus ending the Sicilian campaign. Nine days after the invasion of mainland Italy, on 18 September 1943, the 3rd landed at Salerno. Seeing intensive action along the way, the division drove to and across the Volturno River by October 1943, and then to Cassino, where the battle of Monte Cassino would later be fought. After a brief rest, the division was part of the amphibious landing at Anzio, 22 January 1944, as part of VI Corps of British and American units. It would remain there for four months in a toe-hold against furious German counterattacks. On 29 February 1944, the 3rd fought off an attack by three German divisions. In a single day of combat at Anzio, the 3rd Infantry Division suffered more than 900 casualties, the most of any U.S. division on one day in World War II. The division's former commander, John P. Lucas, was replaced as head of VI Corps by the 3rd Division's then-commander Lucian Truscott.
In late May, VI Corps broke out of the beachhead with the 3rd Division in the main thrust. Instead of defeating the Germans, Clark sent the division on to Rome. This allowed the enemy forces, which would otherwise have been trapped, to escape. The division was then removed from the front line and went into training for the Operation Dragoon, the invasion of Southern France.
On 15 August 1944, D-Day for Dragoon, the division landed at St. Tropez, advanced up the Rhone Valley, through the Vosges Mountains, and reached the Rhine at Strasbourg, 26–27 November 1944. After maintaining defensive positions it took part in clearing the Colmar Pocket on 23 January, and on 15 March struck against Siegfried Line positions south of Zweibrücken. The division advanced through the defenses and crossed the Rhine, 26 March 1945; then drove on to take Nuremberg in a fierce battle, capturing the city in block-by-block fighting, 17–20 April. The 3rd pushed on to take Augsburg and Munich, 27–30 April, and was in the vicinity of Salzburg when the war in Europe ended.
Elements of the 7th Infantry Regiment serving under the 3rd Infantry Division captured Hitler's retreat at Berchtesgaden.
During the war, 4,922 were killed in action, and 18,766 wounded with a further 636 who died of wounds.
During the Korean War, the division was known as the "Fire Brigade" for its rapid response to crisis. 3rd Infantry Division had been headquartered at Fort Benning along with its 15th Infantry Regiment. The 7th Infantry Regiment was located at Fort Devens.
3rd Infantry Division initially arrived in Japan where, as the Far East Command Reserve, it planned post conflict occupation missions in northern Korea. In Japan their strength was increased by augmentation from South Korean soldiers. They landed at Wŏnsan and received the 65th Infantry Regiment as their third maneuver element before moving north to Hungnam and Majon-dong.
At Majon-dong they established a defensive position with the 65th Infantry and began fighting. 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 7th Infantry were on the left flank. The 15th Infantry was between the 7th and 65th Regiments. 3rd Battalion, 7th Infantry was set as the nucleus for Task Force Dog which was commanded by Brigadier General Armistead D. Mead, assistant 3rd Division commander and sent north to conduct a relief in place with 1st Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment at Chinhung-ni; the south end of the 1st Marine Division and support the withdrawal of 1st Marine Division and Regimental Combat Team 31 from the Chosin Reservoir. 3rd Infantry Division's TF Dog was the rearguard keeping the pressure off of the Marine column. The division established, along with the 7th Infantry Division a collapsing perimeter around the port of Hungnam until the last of X Corps was off the beach. The port of Hungnam was blown up to deprive the enemy the use of those facilities as the last of the 7th, 15th, and 65th Infantry units boarded ships.
The division went on to support combat missions of the Eighth Army until 1953 when it was withdrawn. Notably, the division fought valiantly, besides its extremely essential and able contribution during the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir, at the Chorwon-Kumwha area, Jackson Heights and Arrowhead outposts, and blocked a CCF push in the Kŭmsŏng Area in July 1953.
3rd Infantry Division received ten Battle Stars. Eleven more members of the unit received Medals of Honor during the Korean War. Eight were from the 7th Infantry Regiment: Jerry K. Crump (6 and 7 September 1951), John Essebagger, Jr. (25 April 1951), Charles L. Gilliland (25 April 1951), Clair Goodblood (24 and 25 April 1951), Noah O. Knight (23 and 24 November 1951), Darwin K. Kyle (16 February 1951), Leroy A. Mendonca (4 July 1951), and Hiroshi H. Miyamura, whose award was classified Top Secret until his repatriation (24 and 25 April 1951). Three more recipients were with the 15th Infantry Regiment: Emory L. Bennett (24 June 1951), Ola L. Mize (10 and 11 June 1953) and Charles F. Pendleton (16 and 17 July 1953).
During the Korean War, the division had 2,160 killed in action and 7,939 wounded.