Replaced by the 14th IR in August 1951
|Champeny, Arthur S. "Art"[Col. KMAG]||8/6/50|
|Col.||Horton V. White||8/6/50|
|Paul F. Roberts|
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|24th Infantry Regiment|
|Active||1869 – 1951; 1995 – present|
|Garrison/HQ||Fort Wainwright, Alaska|
|Nickname||Deuce Four (special designation)|
|Motto||"Semper Paratus" (Always Prepared)|
|Colors||Blue and white|
War with Spain
World War II
|Distinctive unit insignia|
The 24th Infantry Regiment was a unit of the United States Army, active from 1869 until 1951, and again from 1995 until 2006. The regiment is notable for having a colorfully checkered history, with a record of mostly meritorious service and valorous combat performance, marred by episodes such as the Houston Riot of 1917 and deficiencies in command leadership during the Korean War.
The 24th Infantry Regiment (one of the Buffalo Soldier regiments) was organized on November 1, 1869 from the 38th and 41st (Colored) Infantry Regiments. All the enlisted soldiers were black, either veterans of the U.S. Colored Troops or freedmen. From its activation to 1898, the 24th Infantry served throughout the Western United States. Its missions included garrisoning frontier posts, battling American Indians, protecting roadways against bandits, and guarding the border between the United States and Mexico.
The year 1898 saw the 24th Infantry deployed to Cuba as part of the U.S. Expeditionary Force in the Spanish-American War. Elements of the 24th participated in the storming of the Spanish fortress in the Battle of El Caney. At the climactic battle of San Juan Hill, supported by intensive fire from the Gatling Gun Detachment, units of the 24th Infantry, accompanied by elements of the 6th and 13th Infantry Regiments, assaulted and seized the Spanish-held blockhouse and trench system atop San Juan Hill.
In 1899 the regiment deployed to the Philippine Islands to help suppress a guerrilla movement in the Philippine-American War. The regiment returned to the Islands in 1905 and 1911. Though the 24th fought a number of battles in the Philippines, one of the most notable occurred on December 7, 1899, when nine soldiers from the regiment routed 100 guerrillas from their trenches.
In 1916 the 24th Infantry guarded the U.S.-Mexico border to keep the Mexican Revolution from spilling on to U.S. soil. When it did, the 24th joined the "Punitive Expedition" under General Pershing and entered Mexico to fight Pancho Villa's forces. In 1919, rebels and troops of the Mexican government fought in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, which borders the U.S. city of El Paso, Texas. The 24th Infantry crossed over again to engage the rebels, ensuring that no violence erupted across the U.S. border.
The Houston Riot (1917) was a mutiny by 150 black soldiers of the Twenty-fourth United States Infantry, called the Camp Logan Riots. Sergeant Vida Henry of I Company, 3rd Battalion led about 150 black soldiers in a two-hour march on Houston because they had suffered racial discrimination in the city.
The soldiers were met by local policemen and a great crowd of Houston residents, who had armed themselves. When the soldiers killed Captain J.W. Mattes of the Illinois National Guard (after mistaking him for a local policeman), the battalion fell into disarray. Sgt. Henry shot himself, distraught over having killed another serviceman. In their two-hour march on the city, the battalion killed 15 armed whites, including four policemen, and seriously wounded 12 others, one of whom, a policeman, subsequently died. Four black soldiers were killed. Two were accidentally shot by their own men, one in camp and the other on San Felipe Street. The riot lasted one afternoon, and resulted in the deaths of four soldiers and 15 civilians. The rioters were tried at three courts-martial. Fourteen were executed, and 41 were given life sentences.
At the start of World War II, the 24th Infantry was stationed at Fort Benning as School Troops for the Infantry School. They participated in the Carolina Maneuvers of October – December 1941. During World War II, the 24th Infantry fought in the South Pacific Theatre as a separate regiment. Deploying on April 4, 1942 from the San Francisco Port of Embarkation, the regiment arrived in the New Hebrides Islands on May 4, 1942. The 24th moved to Guadalcanal on August 28, 1943, and was assigned to the US XIV Corps. 1st Battalion deployed to Bougainville, attached to the 37th Infantry Division, from March to May 1944 for perimeter defense duty. The regiment departed Guadalcanal on December 8, 1944, and landed on Saipan and Tinian on December 19, 1944 for Garrison Duty that included mopping up the remaining Japanese forces that had yet to surrender. The regiment was assigned to the Pacific Ocean Area Command on March 15, 1945, and then to the Central Pacific Base Command on May 15, 1945, and to the Western pacific Base Command on June 22, 1945.
The regiment departed Saipan and Tinian on July 9, 1945, and arrived on the Kerama Islands off Okinawa on July 29, 1945. At the end of the war, the 24th took the surrender of forces on the island of Aka-shima, the first formal surrender of a Japanese Imperial Army garrison. The regiment remained on Okinawa through 1946.
From the end of World War II through 1947, the 24th occupied Okinawa, Japan, after which it relocated to Gifu, Japan. On February 1, 1947, the regiment reorganized as a permanent regiment of the 25th Infantry Division. Despite the desegregation of the U.S. armed forces in 1948 by Executive Order 9981, the 24th Infantry remained predominantly African–American, with an officer corps of both African and European Americans. In late June 1950, soon after North Korea invaded South Korea, the 24th deployed to Korea to assist in the Korean War.
The 24th Infantry fought throughout the entire Korean peninsula, from the defense of the "Pusan Perimeter" to its breakout and the pursuit of communist forces well into North Korea, to the Chinese counteroffensives, and finally to U.N. counteroffensives that stabilized near the current Demilitarized Zone. The regiment received the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation for its defense of the Pusan Perimeter. The regiment also had two posthumous Medal of Honor recipients, Cornelius H. Charlton and William Thompson.
The cases of Lieutenant Leon Gilbert, court martialed for refusing an order from the 24th's commanding officer (who was white), and of some other members of the 24th, helped bring greater attention to problems of segregation and discrimination within the U.S. military.
Upon landing at Pusan the 25th Infantry Division was initially positioned some one hundred miles north of Pusan and given the mission of blocking and delaying advancing North Korean forces down the Naktong River valley from the northwest.
July 21, 1950
On 21 July 1950 the 3rd Battalion, 24th Infantry supported by other elements of the 24th Regimental Combat Team conducted the first major offensive mission of the 25th Infantry Division with its recapture of the vital road junction town of Yechon driving out the North Korean defenders and repulsing a North Korean attempts to retake the town. It was considered by the Congress and the Department of Defense as the first sizeable American ground victory of the war.
The 25th Infantry Division remained in the upper Naktong River valley into August in the area near the town of Sangju. The regiments of the 25th conducted delaying actions, trading space for time against ever increasing North Korean pressure.
August 1, 1950
Fearing a North Korean breakthrough to Pusan along the South Korean coast the 25th Infantry Division was transferred by Eighth Army over one hundred miles by trains and trucks on 1-3 August 1950 to the vicinity of the city of Masan situated astride the southern coast road approaching Pusan from the west.
August 3, 1950
By 3 August the 25th was in its new defensive positions extending some twenty miles in width from the southern coast north to the confluence of the Naktong and Nam rivers.
The 24th Infantry Regiment held the center of the line in rugged mountain ridges and peaks of Subok-san to include Hill 665 which was to become known as Battle Mountain and Hill 743 known as Pil-bong. These mountain peaks had no roads or trails leading up their eastern slopes making it extremely difficult for U.S. forces to attack up them, as well as taking hours to re-supply units on them and to bring down casualties. Strong North Korean attacks with overwhelming force hit the 25th Infantry Division time-and-again. In the 24th Infantry sector, Battle Mountain and Pil-bong were often overrun and then retaken in hand-to-hand combat with heavy casualties.
August 6, 1950
On 6 August during an ambush of elements of the 3rd Battalion near the village of Haman, PFC William Thompson, Company M, 24th Infantry, manned a machine gun in an exposed position and placed accurate fire on the attacking North Koreans until mortally wounded giving his unit time to react to the attack. He was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism. Through August and into September the 25th Infantry Division successfully held its defensive sector preventing the North Korean forces from breaking through to Pusan. For this significant achievement the division including the 24th Infantry, was awarded a Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation.
August 8, 1950
The next day, 8 August, the regiment [2/35] advanced to the high ground just short of the Much'on-ni road fork. There Fisher received orders from General Kean to dig in and wait until the 5th Regimental Combat Team could come up on his left and join him at Much'on-ni. While waiting, Fisher's men beat off a few enemy attacks and sent out strong combat patrols that probed enemy positions as far as the Nam River. [16-12]
Behind and on the left of the 35th Infantry, in the mountain mass that separated it from the other attack columns, the fight was not going well. From this rough ground surrounding Sobuk-san, the 24th Infantry was supposed to clear out enemy forces of unknown size, but believed to be small.
September 15, 1950
The landing at Inch'ŏn by U.S. and ROK forces on September 15 finally compelled the North Koreans to withdraw from the Pusan Perimeter.
September 15, 1950
In conjunction with General MacArthur’s surprise landing of the X Corps at Inchon on 15 September 1950 the United Nations forces in the Pusan Perimeter went on the offensive. In the 25th Division sector strong enemy resistance on the mountain peaks of the Subok-san delayed undertaking the offensive until 19 September when the mountain peaks and ridges had been cleared by the 24th Infantry in the face of weakening but stubborn enemy resistance.
Once the mountains were in friendly hands the 25th went on the offensive. An attack to the west on two axes of advance was to be conducted with motorized task forces one of which consisted primarily of the 24th Infantry Regiment. Starting on 27 September and moving rapidly that task force brushed aside North Korean delaying actions rapidly seizing several Korean towns and in the process managed to liberate close to one hundred American prisoners.
September 27, t910
The 24th Infantry was divided into Task Forces Blair and Task Forces Corley (named for their commanders), and they, along with several from other commands, began pursuing the enemy on September 27.
September 30, 1950
By 30 September the 24th Infantry had reached and liberated the west coast port city of Kunsan.
In October, after linking up with the X Corps, the Eighth Army crossed the 38th Parallel into North Korea while the 25th Division remained in South Korea. The 24th Infantry and the other elements of the 25th Division were given the mission of eliminating surviving fragments of North Korean units south and east of the city of Taejon which had been bypassed by American forces and were threatening the American supply lines. By early November the 25th Division had successfully accomplished its mission of securing and stabilizing the area around Taejon and was moved north to Kaesong to continue the mission of eliminating pockets of bypassed enemy units along the 38th Parallel.
November 19, t950
After rapidly completing that mission, the 25th was moved north and on 19 November 1950 into the front lines which by then were deep into North Korea near Anju. Taking the offensive, the Tropic Lightning quickly ran into stiff resistance and was thrown onto the defensive as massive Chinese Communist Forces attacked and penetrated the Eighth Army line to the right of the 25th Division and opened up the 25th Division’s right flank held by the 24th Infantry Regiment. Taking heavy casualties as the Chinese hit the right flank of the 2nd Battalion,
The 25th Division remained in South Korea until ordered north in late November to participate in the Chongchon operation. Later in November, overwhelming assaults by Chinese troops forced the U.S. Eighth Army to withdraw.
November 29, 1950
On November 29, the Chinese 40th Army flanked the 24th Infantry's line north of the Chongchon River in North Korea, forcing the neighboring 9th Regiment of the 2nd Division to withdraw.
November 30, 1950
On November 30, the 3/24th was at Kunu-ri, on the division's open right flank, with Chinese troops behind it. With the help of air support, the battalion extricated itself, losing one soldier killed, 30 wounded and 109 missing. Overall, the 24th Infantry lost one-fifth of its officers and one-third of its enlisted men in the withdrawal across the Chongchon. Colonel Corley blamed the disarray of the 3rd Battalion on its commander, Lt. Col. Melvin E. Blair, whom he summarily relieved.
The Eighth Army's withdrawal did not cease until the force was well below the 39th parallel north. But by early March 1951, the American and ROK troops were again ready for a full-scale offensive.
December 8-14th 1950
24th Infantry and with Chinese troops moving to their rear, the 24th Infantry along with the rest of the 25th Division began a series of delaying actions back down the peninsula, reaching Kaesong on 8 December and then south of the Imjin River in South Korea by the 14 December.
January 3, 1951
Continuing Chinese pressure forced the Eighth Army including the 25th Division to withdraw further south to the 37th Parallel near Osan by 3 January 1951.
January 25, 1951
On 25 January the 25th Division participated in the United Nations counteroffensive reaching the Han River by 19 February.
Mrch 7, 2951
On 7 March the 24th Infantry conducted a well executed assault crossing of the Han as the 25th drove north inflicting heavy casualties on the Communist forces reaching and holding a line just south of the city of Chorwon by the end of March.
April 11, 1951
After crossing the Hantan River on April 11, the 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry attacked a steep ridge line defended by heavily dug-in Chinese forces and was initially repulsed. Two days later in bitter fighting the ridge was taken by the 24th Infantry.
April 22, 1951
On 22 April the Chinese started a new offensive that pushed back the United Nations forces including the 25th Division to the area just north of Seoul.
May 20 1951
Another UN counteroffensive beginning on 20 May drove the Chinese back north across the 38th Parallel.
June 2, 1951
On 2 June 1951 near the town of Chipo-ri, Company C, 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry was assaulting a heavily defended ridge line when the platoon leader became a casualty. Sergeant Cornelius Charlton took command and led a charge up the ridge wiping out three enemy bunkers with his rifle and grenades despite receiving serious wounds. His bravery inspired his platoon to seize the crest of the ridge in one final charge. He succumbed to his wounds and was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his extreme gallantry.
June 15-21 1951
By the middle of June the 25th Division had captured the town of Kumhwa and then on 21 June the Tropic Lightning was taken off the line and placed in reserve near Uijongbu. Armistice negotiations started on 10 July 1951. In mid July the 25th went back on the line to its previous positions near the towns of Chorwon and Kumhwa.
While the armistice negotiations were underway the two sides went on the defensive. The 24th Infantry Regiment like the other Eighth Army units in contact with the enemy, restricted their offensive actions to company-sized limited objective attacks and patrolling.
March 6, 1951
On March 6, the 25th Division advanced across the Han River. The 1/24th did well, moving over difficult terrain against an entrenched enemy. The 3rd Battalion initially also performed well, executing a hastily devised river crossing and advancing through rough country against well dug-in Chinese troops, far from the 1st Battalion. While climbing up steep terrain, however, the 1/24th reportedly collapsed under Chinese fire and withdrew in disorder. When the division commander learned of that action, his confidence in the 24th plummeted. Many soldiers of the 24th ran away from the fight, tossing their weapons and equipment aside. A derisive poem throughout the U.S. Army stated: When them Chinese mortars begins to thud, the Old Deuce-Four begin to bug.
Although the 24th performed well in the attack north of the Han and the subsequent general withdrawal of the Eighth Army after the Chinese spring offensive of 1951, its reputation was somewhat tarnished. But it performed well in the Army's drive back north in May and June 1951.
In August, the regiment's new commander, Colonel Thomas D. Gillis, prodded by the division commander, closely examined the 24th's record in Korea. Determining that leadership had been the problem, he relieved a number of officers. After the change in command,
September 15, 1951
Company F conducted a valiant bayonet and grenade charge on September 15. But, the positive performance of Company F was ignored by higher commands and the news media.
One of the last significant combat actions of the 24th Infantry Regiment in Korea involved the regiment’s Company F which on 15 September 1951 near the village of Mando captured a key Communist outpost with a gallant bayonet and grenade charge.
Shortly thereafter in conjunction with the integration of the US Army the 24th Infantry ...
October 1, 1951
By October 1, 1951, the 24th was dissolved.
Regiment was inactivated effective 1 October 1951 at Chipo-ri, Korea after six Korean War campaigns and 85 years of continuous service in the United States Army.
The other two elements of the 24th Regimental Combat Team, the 159th Field Artillery Battalion and the 77th Engineer Combat Company both of which had rendered excellent direct support to the 24th Infantry through six Korean campaigns were integrated and remained active, serving in all ten campaigns of the Korean War.
The 77th continued to serve with the Tropic Lightning until the 1953 then was inactivated. While assigned to the Tropic Lightning the 159th Field Artillery Battalion received a Navy Presidential Unit Citation for its support of the 1st Marine Division near Wonju in April 1951.
November 12, 1951
On 12 November 1951 the 159th was reassigned to the Eighth Army and remained in Korea until 1955.
The 24th Infantry was re-instituted in 1995 and assigned to the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division in Fort Lewis, Washington. The regiment served in the Iraq War from 2004 to 2005, and was decorated for its service. In 2006, during a re-organization of the Army, the regiment was re-flagged; however, the 1st Battalion was not included, and so it alone retains the regimental designation and carries on its legacy. It is now part of the 1st Brigade Combat Team (Stryker), 25th Infantry Division at Fort Wainwright, Alaska.
They were assigned to the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division "Lightning" (a Stryker brigade), and served in Iraq from October 2004 to October 2005. The battalion came home with 5 Silver Stars, 31 Bronze Stars, and 181 Purple Hearts and played a crucial role in the Battle of Mosul (2004). During that battle, the battalion saw some of the heaviest, sustained fighting of the insurgency to date. The unit was also awarded with the Valorous Unit Award as being part of the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (SBCT).
The unit has now been reflagged as the 3rd Squadron, 2nd Stryker Cavalry Regiment and moved to Vilseck, Germany. The 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry Regiment has replaced the 2nd Battalion, 1st Infantry Regiment of the now decommissioned 172nd Stryker Brigade Combat Team as of December 14, 2006. The 1–24 Infantry is now part of the 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division based in Fort Wainwright, Alaska. The 24th Infantry Regiment also served under 1-25 SBCT in Afghanistan in 2011-2012. The 1st BN, 24th Infantry was stationed at FOB Lagman in Zabul Province. 1-24 lost several soldiers to Taliban attacks throughout their yearlong deployment, including an "insider attack" in Qalat.